FIG Peer Review Journal


GPS Antenna Height and its Influence on Pseudorange Multipath (2816)

Gilad Even-Tzur and Doron Shaked (Israel)
Dr. Gilad Even-Tzur
Faculty of Civil&Environmental Engineering
Corresponding author Dr. Gilad Even-Tzur (email: eventzur[at], tel.: 972-4-8293459)

[ abstract ] [ handouts ] [ handouts ]

Published on the web 2008-03-21
Received 2008-01-31 / Accepted 2008-03-14
This paper is one of selection of papers published for the FIG Working Week 2008 in Stockholm, Sweden and has undergone the FIG Peer Review Process.

FIG Working Week 2008
ISBN 978-87-90907-67-9 ISSN 2307-4086


The GPS antenna is the connecting component between the GPS satellite and the GPS receiver. Its function is to transfer the satellite signal propagation to the receiver with minimum interruption. A satisfactory process is expected to result in an accurate and reliable performance of the GPS receiver. Multipath error is a dominant error source connected with GPS positioning. Mitigation of such errors can be achieved by improving signal processing and a better antenna design. When the geometry between the GPS satellite and the receiver remains unchanged, a comparison study between antenna types set up in different height is possible since the pseudorange multipath pattern is repeated every sidereal day. Such a multipath comparison was carried out for three types of pseudorange, the C/A code and the P-code modulated on the L1 and L2 carrier phase. The multipath pseudorange from several satellites with different elevation angles was used in the assessment of the multipath effects. The method of comparison and the test are also presented. This paper attempts to examine the effects of the antenna height on pseudorange multipath in a variety of GPS antenna types, and compares the multipath mitigation capabilities of different antenna types set up at different heights. The effects of different height positioning of the GPS antenna on the pseudorange multipath are examined, as determining the desirable height at which a GPS antenna should be positioned can assist in reducing pseudorange multipath effects. The data obtained in this research proves that the optimal height for positioning the GPS antenna in order to reduce pseudorange multipath is at ground level.
Keywords: GNSS/GPS; "Multipath"; "pseudorange"; "antenna"; "C/A code"; "P code"