FIG Peer Review Journal


GIS Evaluation of Urban Growth and Flood Hazards: A Case Study of Makkah City, Saudi Arabia (5479)

Gomaa Dawod (Egypt), Khalid Al-Ghamdi, Meraj Mirza and Ramze Elzahrany (Saudi Arabia)
Dr. Gomaa Dawod
Survey Research Institute
308 Al-Ahram St.
Corresponding author Dr. Gomaa Dawod (email: dawod_gomaa[at], tel.: +966551402093)

[ abstract ] [ paper ] [ handouts ]

Published on the web 2012-02-02
Received 2011-11-03 / Accepted 2012-02-02
This paper is one of selection of papers published for the FIG Working Week 2012 in Rome, Italy and has undergone the FIG Peer Review Process.

FIG Working Week 2012
ISBN 97887-90907-98-3 ISSN 2307-4086


Four-dimensional Geographic Information System (4D GIS) furnishes a noteworthy technical tool for precisely mapping growth of urban municipality over time. It can be augmented to estimate flood hazardous impacts due to that urban sprawl. In the current study, a 4D GIS has been developed to analyze and quantify both the urban growth and the flood hazard changes in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, over the last twenty years. It has been found that the urban growth in 1990 took the north-east and south-west directions, while it took the north-west and south-east directions in 2010. Additionally, investigating the city topography reveals that the urban sprawl mostly exist in low- and moderate-elevation regions. Attained results showed, also, that the residential regions of Makkah city have been increased by 197%, while the total flood volumes have been enlarged by 248%. This id due to two factors: (1) establishment of new residential areas in regions that already posse high flood impacts; and (2) building up new suburban areas on sediment soil significantly decreases the permeability of the soil and, thus, leads to a crucial increase in hazardous water surface runoff. It is concluded that the utilization of GIS in urban growth and flood hazard estimation studies is quit powerful and provides a successful technical tool that helps in analyzing and understanding such phenomena. It is recommended that the achieved findings should be taken into account by decision-makers in development planning and resources management policies for Makkah metropolitan area.
Keywords: Hydrography; Urban renewal; Risk management; GIS; spatial analysis; urban growth; flood hazards; rainfall-runoff; Saudi Arabia