FIG Peer Review Journal


Integrated Quality Indicators and Stochastic Modelling for Real-Time Positioning: Overview and Implementation (4145)

Simon Fuller, Eldar Rubinov, Phil Collier and Seager James (Australia)
Mr. Simon Fuller
PhD Student
Cooperative Research Centre for
Spatial Information
723 Swanston St
Corresponding author Mr. Simon Fuller (email: sfuller[at], tel.: + 61 425719392)

[ abstract ] [ paper ] [ handouts ]

Published on the web 2010-01-14
Received 2009-11-19 / Accepted 2010-01-14
This paper is one of selection of papers published for the FIG Congress 2010 in Sydney, Australia and has undergone the FIG Peer Review Process.

FIG Congress 2010
ISBN 978-87-90907-87-7 ISSN 2308-3441


In the last decade the use of high precision Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) has increased markedly and the range of user applications has grown well beyond the traditional domain of surveying and engineering. This growth has been facilitated by the establishment of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) networks and a new form of positioning known as Network Real-Time Kinematic (NRTK). However, the growth in the range of user applications has brought with it some interesting challenges for equipment manufacturers, software developers, and providers of NRTK services. One such challenge is ensuring that the quality of positioning consistently satisfies the demands of the customer. Currently there is nor reliable, nor readily available, quality indicator that can inform users to the quality of their positioning. A further shortcoming in NRTK positioning is that the stochastic models employed are generally simplistic and overly optimistic. The consequence is that often the precision of NRTK coordinates is incorrectly estimated, leading to a false sense of user confidence. There is a considerable scope to improve the stochastic model and its ability to accurately reflect the quality of the raw GNSS observables. The research summarised here is concerned with the development of the Real-Time Quality Control (RTQC) system which aims to inform both users and providers of NRTK services of the quality, dependability, and fitness-for-purpose of their positioning in real time. This paper will present an overview of the system, concentrating on current research into the integration of mobile user’s and CORS network data and the development of real-time stochastic models.
Keywords: GNSS/GPS; Positioning; Network RTK; Quality Control; Stochastic Modelling