FIG Peer Review Journal


Overview of Current Indoor Navigation Techniques and Implementation Studies (5102)

Christian Lukianto and Harald Sternberg (Germany)
Dipl.-Ing. Christian Lukianto
HafenCity University Hamburg
Department Geomatics
Hebebrandstr. 1
Corresponding author Dipl.-Ing. Christian Lukianto (email: christian.lukianto[at], tel.: + 49 40 42827 5435)

[ abstract ] [ paper ] [ handouts ]

Published on the web 2011-03-16
Received 2010-11-22 / Accepted 2011-02-10
This paper is one of selection of papers published for the FIG Working Week 2011 in Marrakech, Morocco and has undergone the FIG Peer Review Process.

FIG Working Week 2011
ISBN 978-87-90907-92-1 ISSN 2307-4086


Navigation under conditions with only insufficient or no satellite coverage is commonly known as indoor navigation. As satellite-based navigation techniques are well-researched and its navigation solutions available to the public, the need arises for equally efficient and portable solutions indoors. Examples include large public office buildings, shopping malls, or even support technology for visually impaired people or the elderly. This paper presents an overview of current indoor navigation techniques, highlighting the underlying principles, prerequisites and limitations. Among the most important solutions presented are the satellite-based navigation method and inertial navigation systems. The overview is followed by the discussion of some possible combinations of the presented techniques. Combinations are deemed successful, if the resulting positioning accuracy is higher than the individual accuracies and if some of the issues inherent to the individual technique are reduced, if not overcome. Finally, two particular implementations of indoor navigation systems are being described. Both were and are developed and evaluated at the authors’ home department in an attempt to develop a portable and robust indoor navigation system.
Keywords: GNSS/GPS; Positioning; Low cost technology; indoor navigation; inertial navigation; sensor fusion; Kalman filter; particle filer