FIG Peer Review Journal


Livelihoods of Squatter Settlements: Analysis from Tenure Perspective (8536)

Ashokkumar Shrestha, Purna Nepali and Reshma Shrestha (Nepal)
Mr. Ashokkumar Shrestha
Survey Officer
Survey Department
Ministry of Land Reform and Management
Government of Nepal
Ugratara VDC-04
Kavre, Bagmati
Corresponding author Mr. Ashokkumar Shrestha (email: shrestha.ak1[at], tel.: +977-9841305953)

[ abstract ] [ paper ] [ handouts ]

Published on the web 2017-03-10
Received 2016-10-01 / Accepted 2017-02-01
This paper is one of selection of papers published for the FIG Working Week 2017 in Helsinki, Finland and has undergone the FIG Peer Review Process.

FIG Working Week 2017
ISBN 978-87-92853-61-5 (Online) ISBN 978-87-92853-62-2 (Printed)
ISSN 2307-4086


Squatter settlements are inevitable in most of the urban areas. Livelihood situation of squatter settlements seem poor, vulnerable and miserable. Living condition in these settlements suffered from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper waste disposal system and degraded air quality. The research aims to study the livelihood of squatter settlements and analyze from tenure security perspective in the selected study area. Moreover, this research basically attempts to understand and analyze livelihood situations of the squatter settlements with reference to tenure security. Specifically, it includes the importance and the role of tenure security in squatter settlement with regard to livelihood, as well as to analyze improvement of it over the past 10 years. Data for the research were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The research has successfully evaluated and analysis livelihood situations of the squatter settlements with reference to tenure security. The analysis result shows that the improvement level in Thapathali Squatter Settlement (TSS) is negative in regard to key dimensions of the slums and squatters. Relatively, Shankhamul Squatter Settlement (SSS) has improved. Being the resettlement, Kirtipur Squatter Resettlement (KSR) is achieving the key dimensions of the slums and squatters. In the continuum of land rights, TSS is found in the condition of perceived land tenure. Unlike it, SSS has the condition of De-facto land tenure and KSR is in the condition of legal tenure. The findings of the study show that practice by the government and fear of eviction are the main causes of the squatters' planning of the physical structure of their houses .Specific policies are to be applied by the government both for the betterment of the squatters and for prevention of the formation of squatter settlements. It is recommended that identification and categorization of genuine squatters at local level can be the better way of studying them. Genuine squatters should be resettled and vulnerable ones should be relocated or eliminated. Consequently, participatory resettlement of squatter settlement is suggested for betterment of their livelihood and ensures their land tenure security.
Keywords: Informal settlements