Article of the Month -
Land, Sea and People: Equitable Access to
Diane Dumashie, United Kingdom
This article in .pdf-format.
The geographical administration of coastal areas requires appropriate
frameworks and tools; but this framework has to accommodate not only the
physical dynamics of coastal processes, but also the dynamics of people and
the places in which they prefer to live.
The challenge now is better to manage the multi-dynamic changes occurring
in this transitional zone. Although the balance often sought is space for
environmental considerations, it should also include space that can be
shared equitably between different community groups. This requires a future
that recognises social justice for a range of coastal communities
This paper outlines a series of ‘Coastal Futures’. These are scenarios,
construed from observations set in plausible assumptions of coastal changes
over the next generations that impact on the basis of how societies might
need to organise and the attendant values they may need to adopt. It is
argued that an equitable scenario is one that justly includes a pro poor
approach to accommodating changing patterns of economic development.
The continuing growth in international coastal leisure and tourism
activities is representative of ongoing economic change and a major
reassessment in social values for some peoples. In this ever evolving world,
what right to those with economic power to develop coastal resources that to
takes access from indigenous peoples and prevents access to their
In the context of equitable future scenarios, the paper seeks to
articulate why there is a need to maintain access to key coastal resources
for all community groups and how it can be achieved. It explores the
questions of social justice that should be incorporated into management
frameworks such as Coastal Area Management (CAM). It is suggested that as
land professionals, we have a unique role and expertise to contribute to,
and facilitate, this process through our understanding of the land
administration paradigm, which combines land management and economic
development, our ethical principles in order to address the needs of all
It concludes that not only is it morally right, but also necessary to
have local community ‘buy in’ to achieve sustainable coastal management, and
observes that changing patterns of economic development, while maintaining
rights and reservations for original coastal communities, can be
Countries around the globe are buffeted by global forces,
of which two are atmospheric pressures that change the weather, and changing
demographic profiles. Both are dynamic. Each is a product of complex forces
and subtle influences but ultimately they are inexorably transforming
societies and the assumptions that underlie public policy.
The theme of this paper
recognises these two dynamic changes on coasts:
travelling to third world countries and residing on coastlines that were
previously thought as too inhospitable for anything but subsistence
change altering sea levels and increasing the frequency of natural disasters
along these coasts.
The effects on host communities due to these forces have
highlighted the need for pro poor coastal management tools that retain
access to coastal resources.
In the first instance increasing occurrences of coastal
destruction probably through the effects of climate change, and the
frequency of Tsunami events, has introduced a totally new and hugely
disruptive dimension to the sustainability of land use (Wong) i.e the risk
to the delicate balance of coastal communities– their existence, social
equity and livelihoods.
In the second instance, the theme of this paper is the
need to explore what framework could bridge economic development,
environmental protection and social organisation, both of which act as
tension forces in the struggle to find a sustainable answer to the problem
of maintaining access to coastal resources faced by third world coastal
societies. It is suggested that a potential solution is an understanding of
social justice that philosophically accommodates the original coastal
community and their need for resource access in the face of the economically
powerful tourism and leisure community.
First, as a background the paper sets out the landscape
created by the dynamic interaction of land and sea, how people have settled,
but crucially the effect of coastal tourism as a global economic force. This
is recognition of Space.
Second, continuing the theme of space, multiple use and
perspectives of different communities over the coastal zone is explained by
reference to social justice and the need to incorporate this into strategic
Third, alternative pathways into the future to facilitate
an understanding of a pro- poor management approach to accommodate changing
patterns of development are described in terms of four scenarios, and it is
argued that social justice must be incorporated into a pro poor approach to
coastal area management.
is concluded that it is morally right, and necessary to have local community
‘buy in’ to achieve a pro- poor approach to sustainable coastal management,
and observes that changing patterns of economic development can be
maintaining rights and reservations for original
host coastal communities.
2.1 Coastal Landscape
Coastal Zones (CZ) convey the notion of a land-sea
interface, but the most definable characteristic is the dynamic nature of
coasts, with the boundary between the land and the sea ever changing,
creating in most marine areas the major variable, that of the tides.
Dimensionally, the coastal area has two distinct axis:
one axis is parallel to the shore (longshore), and the other is
perpendicular to the shore (on/ off shore). There is little controversy on
the former, contrasted to the considerable discussion about the latter.
The on/ off shore axis includes transitional and
intertidal areas, wetlands, the coastal flood plain and upland of the flood
plain, and includes all shorelands that drain directly into coastal waters.
Examples over where the inland boundary should be, range from the inclusion
of the entire river watershed to one restricted to the immediate strip, and
the seaward limit extending as far as the maximum of the country’s
jurisdiction (i.e. 200 nautical mile limit). Unresolved difficulties remain
between those who prefer to use an ecosystem-based boundary and those who
utilise a legal/ administrative/ economic boundary consistent with
government jurisdictions. (Penning- Rowsell).
Boundary delineation remains as a significant issue in
the management of coastlines. Surely, a pragmatic stance has to be taken on
what constitutes the Coastal Zone. It must depend upon the purpose at hand.
Relating to the paper’s focus the boundary is determined
by access needs to the coastal resource for ‘use’ of the near shore waters
for both leisure activity and subsistence livelihoods, two definitions are
Zone (CZ) is …
A ‘belt’, a spatial corridor, both
longitudinal and on/ off shore: it is a linear strip of land with adjacent
open space (sea and submerged land) that are mutually interdependent, but
the inland boundary is unlikely to extend further than 1km above High Water
Mark. Across this ‘strip’ access is required to the marine resources.
The CZ is a dynamic system of great
economic, social and environmental significance. This significance is
evident in the variety and types of demands made on the CZ and its
resources. So it is important for countries to implement sustainable
development and uses at their coasts. Without such commitments there is a
danger that the pressures on the CZ will result in lower resources yields,
increasing costs of exploitation, or significant environmental damage but
crucially also adverse impacts on community livelihoods. Concerted action is
needed both to correct past mistakes and to ensure sustainability into the
future (Penning- Rowsell).
‘use’ refers to…..
People’s desire and need to
use the resource, is based on a relationship between humans and other
elements of the natural environment linked to survival and quality of life.
But differences exist between groups, and these differences often reflect
the degree and nature of economic dependence upon and power over the
resources of natural areas (Kenchington,).
The purpose of enquiry
here is to ensure sustainable community access across the ‘strip’ to the
marine resources either for livelihood or leisure. It is the coastal zone,
the beach where land meets sea that is the focus.
The tradition and sense of
public right to coastal use is extremely strong; thus public rights to use
marine waters are generally accepted, but property rights on adjacent land
often above high water mark, have impeded access to them, which effectively
negates them. Specifically public and private use may be in conflict in
ecological areas that appeal to tourists seeking a ‘pristine’ beachside
environmental for the purposes of holiday, leisure and recreation in
2.2 Human Settlement
It is well known that the percentage of the global
population that live close or near to the Sea is high, but the simple
fact is that there has always been a fundamental link between Land, Sea and
A reflection on the past reminds one of the equally
dynamic historical context of human settlements, where people have always
been living along coastal lands. It is commonplace to declare that the
coastal zone has long been favoured for human settlement, with population
estimates range between 60% and 80% of people living within 70/ 100km of the
The historical establishment of communities and
infrastructure along the coast has been driven by the need to access coastal
water for economic livelihood (and communications). It is not
surprising that there is considerable development along much of the world’s
coastline, including port development, heavy industry (including ship
building), coastal protection and increasingly today, construction for
tourism and recreation purposes.
Superimposed on this is the increase in the human
population changing the demographic profile of where and how we live, work
and play. At the beginning of the 20th century, the human global
population was 2 Billion; by the end of the century this figure had
increased to 6 Billion, with projections to reach 8 Billion by 2035. It is
not unreasonable to expect that many of these people will expect to continue
to access the Coasts.
This narrow stretch of land and water is always under
considerable pressure and subject to competition between private and
government agencies for many land and marine uses, too often incompatible,
and this competition is increasing. Issues of social justice become
magnified in third world coastal areas that are relatively unpolluted and
unaltered by human development; but often with subsistence settlements where
the poor reside. Global demographic influences are changing such coastlines
for those who are economically advantaged are accommodated in resorts the
development of which is leading to physical degradation of previously
unspoilt areas and leaving the poor community displaced and disaffected.
Characteristically, these poor community settlements are:
physically and socially isolated; where deprivation levels are high; with
high proportions of older people with higher levels of outward migration of
young people; low wage, low skilled economies; with poor quality housing and
a poor coastal economy. Excluding the physical location, none of these are
unique, but the combination of these characteristics with the environmental
and geopolitical pressures that face third world developing states and their
coastal settlements are under, does lead to the conclusion that they are in
need of an appropriate and specific government-focussed attention with prop
poor planning tools to achieve equitable community outcomes.
Two key global changes that Coastal communities are
buffeted by are climatic change and shifting demographic pressures, each are
products of complex forces and unobtrusive influences but ultimately they
are transforming societies and the assumptions of public policy. Each is
intertwined and linked, one such linkage is the economic impact as a result
of coastal tourism on coastal community livelihoods. A key global force ever
since World War Two has been the growth of leisure activities. It became the
fashionable industry in the 1980s and today the developed world’s appetite
for airline flights to coastal destinations remains insatiable despite an
increasing understanding of carbon emissions, carbon footprints etc.
Some of the leisure and recreation needs of affluent and
largely urban communities may be fulfilled at distant locations, thus
tourism becomes a reasonable and socially advantageous ‘coastal’ use based
on appreciation and enjoyment of the environment, improved understanding of
other cultures and increased economic benefits to local communities. Tourism
can provide the motivation for conservation and lead influential
decision-makers in communities to appreciate the values of high
environmental quality and attractive local community goods and services. It
can generate long-term economy and social benefits locally, nationally, and
for the global community.
However, the coordination of long-term sustainable
planning and management for recreation and tourism in eco -attractive areas
is one of the most important challenges of coastal and marine environmental
management. Although the balance often sought is space for environmental
considerations, it should also include space that can be shared equitably
between different community groups. There is also the need to address the
human dimensions of the existing communities that are increasingly becoming
marginalised. Consequently, management should incorporate a socio-economic
Coastal and island states are characteristically
experiencing increasing pressure on land and their resources but the
economic benefits, particularly tourism and related development are not
necessarily benefiting low-income people. In some instances (Dumashie,
2007), these people are displaced from their original spaces and have no
option but to relocate and settle in informal settlements with limited basic
services, unacceptable environmental conditions and few or no work
opportunities – certain none with which they are familiar. A typology is
emerging that tourism is reducing access to resources for the local
community and is further impacting on the resources that already have a
This is compounded by the forms of leisure activity and
their demands for natural resources that are changing with new technology
and with different expectations (e.g wetsuits have increased the number of
participants in watersports). The continuing growth in international coastal
leisure and tourism activities is representative of on-going physical and
economic change and reassessment in social values for some people.
Community values can also dramatically shift. Typically
value slide occurs from increased local community population and increased
economic expectation. Increased opportunities without education can result
in resource over exploitation, and as the environmental capacity burden is
increased in line with village growth so pressure to sustain even the
increasing village communities becomes difficult, resulting in, for example
destruction of coral reefs and timber.
Tourism in the context of societal development has
resulted in alien values having been superimposed upon long established
local community’s use, whose value rests in marine resources for their
livelihoods. Importantly, both the host community and tourism groups are
influenced and subtly adaptive to global forces.
3. SOCIAL JUSTICE
Our world is ever changing with accelerating global forces, but what
right of access do local individuals and communities hold over the coastline
and its resources? How the impacts of global forces are addressed in order
to sustain coastal resources for future generations has become an ethical
issue as well as one of proper management because the importance of
communities at the coast is arguably paramount to the long- term viability.
The sharp contrast between tourist and indigenous communities and their
respective needs to coastal resources is explained by reference to what
perceptional value is attributed to access to the resources. This introduces
social justice, which should be incorporated into an appropriate framework,
and is overviewed here.
It is now unacceptable to alienate the poor, existing communities from
coastal resources - social justice is politically necessary for all. It is
suggested here, that the means to achieve social justice rests in a joined
up community approach that combines policy with action on the ground to
conserve coastal resources for access by all community groups
Adopting the ‘Political agenda’ definition of social justice, which seeks
to reflect the balance in policy, between environment, society and economy
(Midlen, 2007). What could bridge the multiple objectives of economic
development and environmental protection as these both act as tension forces
in the struggle to find the sustainable answer to the problems of ‘resource
use’ faced by third world coastal societies is important.
A simple way of understanding the inter-relationship of multiple
community objectives is to take on board different community perspectives of
coastal resources linked to conservation of that resource. Kenchington
(1990) has considered this. He notes that perspectives depend upon personal
judgements regarding the amenity value of the environment, and covers a
broad range of intentional human interactions with biological resources and
natural areas. Yet articulating this value identifies profound differences
of opinion of the nature and desirability of resource use to the
relationship between humans and other elements of the natural environment.
These differences often reflect the degree and nature of economic dependence
upon the resources of natural areas.
Multiple use management approaches may be summarised in a diagram (Fig
1.) developed from Kenchington which illustrates the area in which a
decision or group of decisions will conform technically with a requirement
to address the concerns of three interest groups: conservation, tourism and
livelihood (e.g fisherman) with the ‘perfect’ solution represented by the
mid- point of the triangle. This concept is named here as the triangulation
of ‘equity for access’ and sustainable use of the coastal zone.
Fig 1. the Equity triangle, for Access to,
and sustainable use of, coastal resources, - (Developed from Kenchington,
The point is that both communities require the resource to remain intact.
Regardless of different community perspectives, their respective uses, now
and in the future are inextricably linked. Kenchington goes further to say
that many issues involve impacts on the structure, process and amenity. To
explain, using coral reefs as a resource example:
– Competition leading to excessive mining of this biological resource for
say building material, may cause structural impacts that become increasingly
apparent as the resource becomes scarce. (Destruction of the reef leading to
death of the reef reduced supply and increased cost of building materials
plus irreversible environmental standards).
– It may cause process impacts depending upon the role of the harvested
species in the food chain and the extent to which other species will be
affected by its decline (fish nursery breeding grounds disappear, support to
other aquatic vegetation declines).
– It will cause amenity impacts on those who have depended on the resource
(reduction in marine life and diversity, poor water quality).
A significant global force, such as tourism, which increases pressure on
resources, illustrates how the nature of amenity can change rapidly.
Degradation by tourism will cause wider amenity impacts as the structural
and process impacts will affect the fundamental preservation or recreation
options, (tourist leisure pursuits are now untenable).
This paper proposes that applied social justice must be the
outcome of the beneficial interaction between coastal communities and their
need for resource access in the face of market forces such as economic
development from the tourist community. Questions on justice ask about the:
– rights of access for coastal communities to marine resources,
increasingly this looks at the public versus private needs and benefits
– viability and social status of communities, both the existing, often
displaced, host community, as well as the ‘hidden informal community’
– power, capability and rights of communities to engage in decision making;
– role of Central or State government and local jurisdictions in allowing
development (i.e. land disposals to overseas tourism developers alienating
Policy approaches need to address multiple uses over the coastal zone or
space, that of existing poor communities that are increasingly becoming
marginalised and disaffected from the resources available in the coastal
Recognising this brings the debate to an exploration of which strategic
management framework(s) could bridge economic development, community and
environmental protection issues.
4. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS
Management implies a system that sets goals and priorities and then
chooses the most effective and efficient means to those ends. Worldwide
recognition of the importance of marine affairs in nation economics truly
began its momentum in 1970s from which it has increasingly moved to a
connectional basis of ocean and coastal management.
Coastal Zones are often well endowed with resources as defined by its
citizens who have and need access for their local livelihoods,
Post World War 2, the bountifulness of these resources precluded a need
for coastal management structures, but continuing large scale migration of
tourists as a result of the various amenity values of coastal resources, and
increasing affluence in some parts of the world has created a need for a
different and more comprehensive and widespread approach to their
management. In some cases this need arose from experience of the excessive
use e.g. overexploited fishing resources, and in others from conflict
between uses. No significant part of the world’s coastal area is now without
problems. (Kenchigton, 1990). Understanding the nature of conflicting uses
of coastal resources, recognising the problem and being willing to do
something about it provides a clearer basis for the management actions that
Foremost, the emergence and formulation of coastal management approaches
gathered pace in the 1970s. For some decades now, managing coasts has sought
frameworks to accommodate changes resulting from global forces.
Different systems abound across the globe, and are variously referred to
as Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), Coastal Zone Management (CZM),
and Integrated Coastal Area Management (CAM). Here it is referred to as
Coastal Area management because of the wish to emphasis the spatial
perspective of multiple uses over the coastal space. Essentially Coastal
Area Management is intended to replace the ad hoc crisis responses to marine
resource problems with planned, anticipatory and integrated strategies. But
to what degree are there frameworks appropriate, and do they achieve a
strategic management level?
Coastal Area Management is most simply understood as management of the CZ
as a whole in relation to local, regional, national land international
goals. The role of an integrated process and the benefits it brings is
important to marrying the marine environment with the terrestrial. It may be
“an integrated or joined up approach towards the many different
interest on both the land and marine components of the coasts. It is the
process of harmonising the different policies and decision making
structures, and bringing together coastal stakeholders to encourage
concerted action towards achieving common goals” (DEFRA).
Coastal Area Management is inevitably a complex process, and the
management and implementation, across every continent, is well documented
with detailed analysis of demonstrative strengths and weaknesses.
Importantly it seeks to focus on integration covering: sectoral
integrations, spatial integrations, integration across government and
science and management integration (WCMP).
It is an iterative process of management, a way of planning things in
logical stages or actions that take full account of the needs of all
stakeholders. It emphasises the sustainable use of the resource base and
implies measures and mechanisms for the anticipation, resolution and
accommodation of conflicts among competing users of the coastal and ocean
Coastal Area Management has found a number of champions in both
developing and developed states, which have implemented or are in the
process of formulating some form of Coastal Area Management programmes.
Whether management approaches originated in the developed or developing
worlds, the principle is that they should respond to specific environmental
conditions, development needs, and institutional structures. Strategies
originating in the developed world may not be effective for tackling the
problems encountered in the coastal areas of the developing world. So,
like-minded countries should not only share information and experience, but
also adapt them to particular circumstances or create new approaches.
Consider that in reality, Coastal Area Management is an umbrella
discipline that holds many concepts, endorsing the need for coordination
(Dumashie 2001); but as a process it needs to be realised that further
changes are needed. To gain insight by learning lessons from the past will
catapult the process to one that fully comprehends the multiplicity of
issues in coastal areas while embedding it into a social justice paradigm.
Fundamentally, the process should take account of the needs of people and
their livelihoods at all stages of policy and practical development. Above
all, sustaining indigenous communities and their livelihoods has to be at
the forefront of programme focus. It is a people process, thus action has to
be mindful of a collaborative approach.
To accept the ‘social justice’ agenda in order to deliver an agreed and
sustainable future for all society, Coastal area management frameworks could
combine with a strategic focus found in land economics. The resulting
strategy provides a management framework (or road map) for a holistic
programme, and crucially must provide a vision of integrated management for
the particular coastal zone it addresses. How this is so is explained next.
Land management is the process by which the resources of land and sea are
used, and encompasses all activities associated with the planning and
administration of land and natural resources required to achieve economic,
environmental, and social sustainable development. Land administration
functions deal with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in and over
land and sea, relating to the interaction of the three areas of land tenure,
land value and land use but also including land development This all sits
within a country/state context of institutional arrangements and social
culture that can be expected to change over time, (Enemark, 2005), but the
common denominator is that of the inclusion of local people and their
Fig 2. The Land Management Paradigm
(Enemark, et.al. 2005)
Drawing from earlier work (Dumashie 2001), it is proposed that a coastal
area management framework could be developed which embeds the land
management paradigm as a means to facilitate sustainable development. The
balance between individual freedom and community responsibility, economic
power and the rights of the economically impoverished, the tension between
the legal rules and local practice on the ground can be managed through the
mechanics of land administration (Hume).
Professor Enemark, has stated the need for the surveying community, “To
fly high, yet keep your feet on the ground” requires that social justice be
an overarching goal. This will address the triple bottom line of economic,
social and environmental sustainability through public participation and
informed and accountable government decision-making in relation to the built
and natural environments (Enemark, 2006).
As a result, the main issues under scrutiny for a strategic coastal
framework are the:
– transferability of experience;
– effectiveness of present planning and management approaches; and
– degree of integration of coastal management within the national
o But above all the,
– degree of applied social justice to maintain equitable and
sustainable access to coastal resources for all community groups
Considering the future for coastal communities highlights how a healthy
and thriving coastal society might be organised to address these issues.
This is discussed next.
5. COSTAL FUTURES
The idea here is to describe alternative pathways into the future to
facilitate an understanding of a pro- poor approach to accommodate changing
patterns of development. Scenarios project a range of possible outcomes and
enable people to think about the future in different ways. They do not
predict what will happen but identify what may happen. The purpose here is
to suggest a set of scenarios about what might happen if coastal tourism
development continues to compromise access to resources by subsistence
Coastal futures draw on ideas expressed in Scenario planning tools. This
is a way of approaching and planning the future as exemplified by the Mont
Fleur scenarios developed in Southern Africa 1991/92 (Kahane). They identify
what has to be done to secure a desired outcome, and imply the future is not
fixed but can be shaped by decisions and actions of individuals’,
organisations and institutions. Plausible scenarios must be internally
consistent and based on credible interpretations of present trends, i.e set
in plausible assumptions.
In 2004 four scenarios set in the context of climate change and the
affect on coastal and river valleys over the next 95 years were examined by
the UK ‘Foresight’ panel (O’riordan, et-al. 2006). They helpfully create
four story based predictions of resulting social organisations. These have
been adapted to create four new scenarios that observe the conflicting
outcomes relating to the equity triangle (tourism, conservation and
livelihoods) thus predicting how society might need to organise in the
future and the attendant values that are likely to be adopted.
The Table below illustrates each of the Foresight scenarios (in bold),
the resulting social organisation (in italics) which is then adapted as
representative of the ‘push’ and pull’ within the equity triangle between
tourism and livelihoods yet sustaining resources.
A rapidly expanding
global market driven economy with an emphasise on innovations,
competitiveness and technological advance.
The scenario involves a
sense of socially autonomy
based economy with much more emphasis on social responsibility.
This scenario provides
local solutions to planning and environmental management would be
sustainable scenario with a high emphasis on international action
and international obligation over all aspects of sustainable
This scenario results
in a strong commitment to regulation and more proactive management
of resources and landscapes to be sure that they remain viable
Table 1. Scenarios (Adapted
Importantly, the scenarios do not present definitive truths, but
stimulate debate on how to shape the future. No one single scenario is
likely to operate in isolation, as they may become quite blurred. Each
scenario helpfully allows visualisation of the inevitable position of poor
indigenous communities by contemplating a future for them.
Understanding multiple access in an equity triangle can be used to adapt
the direction of Policy formulation, toward a pro poor approach in coastal
area management if social justice is to be an outcome.
The table (above) has two clear messages, that of:
– Society Organisation
We are able to contemplate how national and local communities might be
organised in the face of the increasingly large and wealthy tourist adding
to population pressure and competing for marine resources.
– Society Values
The values relating emanates from the organisation of society and can be
considered in the light of the competition for access to coastal resources
on the one hand for livelihood, and on the other hand, for leisure tourism,
as outlined in the equity triangle.
The three corners of the equity triangle will work as competing forces. In
general, tourism looks to amenity value, while local communities will value
Economically there is a stark contrast in the relative affluence and life
styles of the tourists and the locals, which has the potential to sow the
seeds of social discontent and unrest. This may be adjusted by community
involvement to ensure local benefits from the tourism industry as well as to
maintain access to the common resource of the sea.
From these story telling scenarios, observations can be made that
highlight the importance of a holistic society organised with equitable
values, relating to access to marine resources.- Some observations of the
future for coastal indigenous communities are assessed below
5.1 Scenario Observations
A rapidly expanding global market driven economy with an emphasise on
innovations, competitiveness and technological advance.
Clearly it is unacceptable that there should be extreme social groupings
that discriminate against the poor, there is no future here for communities
based on indigenous livelihoods
A greater national based approach to sharing the economy and society, with
an emphasis on national dialogue and embedded well- being.
Although this scenario fosters well- being, the question is for whom?
One of the major points is that, regardless of the political system and the
ambitious goals for state and regional tourism development, tourism is a
heavily community-based industry. It is the community that host the visiting
In the short-term, private sector developers’ benefit from coastal tourism,
and while they often have the financial resources to install clean
technologies, they often fail to anticipate and adequately invest in
environmental protection. While some are embracing the sustainable agenda
and coming on board in their development projects, greater cooperation with
government at all levels is necessary to minimise the adverse impacts from
Inequitable application of values is witnessed as the result of the most
extreme global force that of climate changes. Post Tsunami events, as an
external force leads to resource ‘grabbing’, where tourism development still
carried on as usual near original sites, as the industry response to future
threats has been protection, rather than either adaptation or retreat in the
form of constructing of walls adding sand to increase height of backshore
(Wong). This is expensive and potentially dangerous to both community
fisheries, and the tourist industry, but critically may leave the local
community without access to their livelihoods.
A locally based economy with much more emphasis on social responsibility.
Costs and benefits often have the strongest impact at the community
Specific economic, social and environmental costs and benefits from
tourist-related development, or any other major industry, need to be
evaluated where impacts are immediate and/or long-term. Some localities
gain, while others lose, even though there may be positive economic growth
at the state level. At regional and state levels, the relationship between
costs and benefits and the needs and desires of individual groups and
communities are easily overlooked.
Tourism development needs to be considered as one among many components of
community development. Kotler emphasises that the basic principle underlying
community development is to create quality environment for people currently
living and working in the community. This concept supports good schools,
strong neighbourhoods, increased public safety, and adequate health
facilities and emphasises the role of strong community-based
organisations/institutions in affecting the quality of a place. “Like any
other component of community development, if tourism is found to support
these outcomes, it should be promoted. If not, it should be resisted.”
At the local level diverted cash income generated by tourism, can be used to
strengthen communities to deal with the adverse and challenging impact of
tourism, and also involving communities to prepare and plan for post
disaster rehabilitation, disaster risk reduction and the design of more
disaster resistant settlements. This is an attempt to balance the
structural, process and amenity impacts; but it will need to ensure
community engagement, education and building capacity.
A global sustainable scenario with a high emphasis on international action
and international obligation over all aspects of sustainable development.
There are very good reasons to pursue International agreements and to
seek regional partnerships. Sharing lessons, as well as facilitating
relationships on a number of counts, technical and scientific cooperation
and wider understanding, will obtain strength and value.
The equity triangle ‘pull’ must not err too extremely toward conservation;
the authorities should address the natural aspirations for appropriate
development for indigenous communities. Thus a parallel community approach
to land and resource management is needed.
Ultimately the public and private sectors (local and national) should
together determine how marine pollution from tourism is controlled. But
international and regional agencies must play an important role in defining
coordinating, supporting, implementing and monitoring the action and the
relevant groups of countries.
The organisation in the wider Caribbean has made a good start. Specifically,
Coastal Area Management regional cooperation already exists in the Caribbean
Network, which is strong, with international agreements relating to:
- Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP), administered by UNEP;
- UNESCO, Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small
Islands Programme (CSI).
5.2 Scenario assessment
In summary it is suggested that scenario 3 is right, as it is necessary
to have local community ‘buy in’ to achieve sustainable coastal management,
and observes that changing patterns of economic development can be
accommodated while maintaining rights and reservations for original host
The challenge is that Sustainability requires community engagement, at
all levels, for rich and poor alike. Ultimately, the impact of the tourism
population pressure on indigenous people’s lives can be greatly reduced by
effective forward planning and good governance, but that involves adherence
to principles of social justice at all administrative levels.
This is difficult - it requires good governance systems to maintain a
strategic, global view interacting with the international community, on
forces that pull, such as environmental, but also forces that push - in this
case tourism markets, at the same time, achieving acceptable outcomes at the
local community level.
6. A PRO-POOR COASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT APPROACH
It is argued above, that a social justice scenario is one that includes a
pro poor approach to policy to accommodate changing patterns of economic
development. It is also argued that a strategic framework for effective
policy and programme development will be achieved by integrating the land
paradigm principles with Coastal Area management. The principles and tools
needed to do this are explained here.
A way forward is one in which the government policies are sustainable and
the country takes a path of inclusive growth and democracy. Mont Fleur
scenarios called this the ‘Flight of Flamingos’ (Kahane). The flight cannot
take off without significant social buy in- this requires a policy mind set
from all community groups - Government, Host communities, NGO’s,
Professionals etc, to change policy and planning approaches.
Effective planning requires a local, bottom up approach, building from
– the ecological basis of the best available understanding of the natural
system and processes of the area. which means engaging with local and
specialist knowledge; and
– the socio-economic basis of the needs and expectations of those who use,
rely on or value the resources of the area. This often involves research and
community educations in order to demonstrate the cause and effect of human
impacts and to demonstrate that management has the potential to halt or
reverse decline in amenity.
This will require tools that foster collaboration, communication,
building capacity as well as education.
6.1 Guiding Principles
The Coastal Management paradigm requires change, and to achieve scaled up
effectiveness it needs to recognise the multiplicity of issues of land and
sea; be it resource use, capacity, administration, registration of rights
and planning. Above all land, sea and people need to be better managed in a
spatial aware manner.
Many of the existing principles and ideas of Coastal Management have come
from economically advanced countries where the coastal communities are often
educated and law abiding and where institutional structures are available.
Taking the tsunami-affected community example, above, with the competing
demands of fishery and tourism communities then, one is dealing with poorly
educated communities and highly profit-orientated entrepreneurs,
respectively, each of which has widely different skills and resources and
each of which needs different treatment if both their aspirations are to be
An approach must focus on pro poor tools, but these must be
Tool kits with a range of initiatives. Noting that the best practitioners
attempt to describe what should be done, but wise practitioners accept that
in the real world there is always going to be some compromises. What
must be avoided is that economic power overrides indigenous rights and
needs, and national and local governments need to be seen to protect all of
We need to encourage those who are responsible or potentially so, to
think ahead, to see the big picture, be flexible and adaptable, to work with
nature rather than battling against it, to develop systems in preparation
for rare but devastating events, to use a combination of instruments, get
all stakeholders involved, and to develop local solutions to local problems.
The toolkit will need the ability to deliver Coastal Area Management at
various scales from regional, national to local levels and be adaptable to a
range of circumstances (WCMP).
It is important for different community groups and government authorities
to work in partnership and to establish a shared vision. The price of not
sharing this vision is that coastal management fails, as different groups
have competing coastal management strategies. Local opposition to change can
be seen as a barrier to coastal management – admittedly one which can often
be easily overcome by government force, however, this ignores both the
social justice and sustainability paradigms which cannot be justified
6.2 Building capacity
Perhaps the strongest tool rests within the capacity of people working
together, but it must be established in ways that reflect the Regions’
culture and philosophy, with the opportunity for them to have access to
informed advice and support.
It is well recognised that human resources are the most valuable assets
of any governmental process, and an integrated coastal management system is
no different in that respect. Coastal Management, combined with land
management, should be a process driven by all of the people involved, where
sustainable human development implies inclusive societal development, and
that in turn implies a deepening of the organisational structures of society
to achieve equitable social justice.
The present projected and growing pressures on the coastal marine
resources as a result of the tourism economic difference is widespread
across the globe. Regions experienced in both knowledge base, and technical
capacity building have been progressively growing. Expanding this knowledge
base is a capacity building challenge that is best address at both regional
and national levels, but by collaboration with local and community-based
groupings perhaps utilising scenario planning as a tool.
Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, the Environmental Minister for Cost Rica
received the first annual Global Ocean Conservation Award, was honoured on
World Ocean day in June 2005 (www/defyingoceansend.org). The 2005
presidential address noted that Cost Rica has a strong tradition of being a
leader in global environmental issues and Mr. Rodriguez extended his
countries influence and visions across the oceans, with his leadership in
both UN and Regional negotiations (San Jose declaration). Indeed he is
claimed as an ocean steward (Earle).
In the wider Caribbean region, headline meetings have included the:
– International workshop on New Directions in management capacity
building for sustainable coastal and ocean management in the wider Caribbean
(Cuba 1998) which focussed upon reviewing the extent of capacity building,
establishing regional institutions and identifying strategic directions and,
as a follow up, identifying partnerships.
– Conference of Parties to the Conventions on Wetlands in May 1999 held in
San Jose, and
– Hemispheric IDNDR meeting for the Americas: Towards Disaster Reduction in
the 21st Centaury June 1999 San Jose.
Perhaps nothing is more central to achieving the goals of Coastal Area
Management than developing skilled practitioners who are able to catalyse,
lead and manage coastal programmes, across a range of socio-economic
cultures. The challenging question is how to develop this capacity? Once
skills are developed, how can favourable enabling conditions through
Institutions be related so that they can be effectively applied?
Leaving the responsibility for the sharing of this best practice with
regions and sub regions is not an adequate response, as coastal communities
will also benefit from the sharing of and may be able to contribute to
global best practice and experiences at national level - so government
support for a permanent network to facilitate the spread of best practice is
needed. In addition this can be done outside government, using professional
expertise and by international and/or regional organisations such as
Federation International Geometric (FIG).
We are facing an uncertain future with perhaps the most single
cataclysmic global force of climate change. But there are others, which can
devastate communities and damage our fragile eco-system, and it will not
serve us well if we choose to ignore or run away from problems affecting
coastal communities. This will require pro poor institutional tools.
Drawing on coastal futures led to the observation that it is unacceptable
to alienate poor communities and that maintaining access for everyone to use
key coastal resources is an imperative. To achieve this it is necessary to:
– Incorporate Social justice into Coastal management frameworks
– Understand and disseminate knowledge benefits of the land management
paradigm, as a means to integrate the needs of communities into strategies
that combine policy with implementation and action on the ground;
– Crucially progress to community ‘buy in’ to achieve satisfactory coastal
management and to achieve social justice, and
– Embrace changing patterns of economic development, but maintaining rights
and reservations for existing coastal communities to marine resources.
Change is inevitable, to what extent we can only guess, but we should
neither be frightened of it nor shrink from addressing it. We need to change
both the mindset and the toolkit for managing global forces in coastal
areas. We need to keep an open mind and embrace that change in the best
interests of all peoples and for future generations and, most importantly we
must use every tool at our disposal for sound, effective, rational and
unencumbered coastal management, rooted in a socially just framework.
Any debate and subsequent framework must acknowledge the rights of, and
engage with Coastal communities. Ultimately it is the political will that
will promote a pro- poor approach. As stated By Kofi Annan (UNESCO):
“We already have the technical skills to halt destructive trends and
to place our economies on a more sustainable footing. It is not knowledge
and scientific research, but political and economic factors that will
determine whether or not the wisdom accumulating in our laboratories and
libraries will be put into practice. Challenges such as climate change and
population growth are testing not only our imagination, but also our will.”
Governments should fully respect the unique role and range of activities
undertaken by coastal communities and landowners and protect them in the
face of international economic pressure. The symbiotic relationship of these
communities and the marine environment means that there are clear economic
justifications for their continued involvement to achieve a balance in both
sustainable environmental outcomes and social justice.
Finally to address the questions posed at the outset, communities:
– Do have a right of access now and for future generations
– With support can be viable and regain a social standing
– Genuinely could engage, given the Mont Fleur exempla, and
– Require the facilitating role of Government and Professionals to encourage
As an inclusive democratic and pro poor approach to growth, this will
be the flight of the Flamingo’s, as Flamingos characteristically take
off slowly, fly high, and fly together (Kahane).
- Ditton B, Seymore, J.L, Swanson, GC: Coastal Resources Management;
Beyond Bureaucracy and the Market, Lexington.
- Dumashie, D. (2001): Strategic management of the Coast. PhD Thesis.
University of Wales, Cardiff.
- Dumashie, D. (2007): RICS Education Trust Project Proposal, Pro poor
tools for Coastal Communities in Zanzibar.
- Earle, S. (2005): Reported in Defying Oceans End,
- Enemark, S. et.al. (2005): Building Modern Land Administration
Systems in Developed Economies. Journal of Spatial Science, Perth,
Australia, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp 51-68.
- Enemark, S. (2006): Presidential Address, FIG Congress, Munich 2006
- Home, R. (2007): Professor of Land Management Anglia Ruskin
University, CASLE Journal 2007
- Kahane, A. (undated): The Mont Fleur Scenarios, Journal Deeper News
Vol. 7 Number 1.
- Kenchington, R.A. (1990) Managing Marine Environments, Taylor &
Francis New York
- Kotler, (1996): Quoted by Timothy Tyrrell, Journal Intercoast
Network, Spring 1998
- Midlen, A. (2007): Journal, The Edge Spring 2007, CoastNet
- O’riordan, T. and Milligan, J. (2006): Tyndall Centres University of
East Anglia, Journal The Edge Winter 2006, Coastnet.
- Penning- Rowsell E.C. (1993): CZM Selected Case Studies, 1993, OECD
- Tapper, R. (1998): Environment Business & Development Group,
Kingston upon Thames, Journal Intercoast Network Fall 1998.
- UNESCO: Message from the Secretary of the UN 5th June 2001,
- WCMP: www/walescoastalpartnership.org.uk.
- Wong., P.P (undated): Tsunami Challenge, Coastal Society Newsletter
TCS 37 (4).
- DEFRA/ Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, UK (2006):
Promoting an integrated approach to Management of the coastal zone in
England. Consultation Document, HMSO.
Dr Diane Dumashie
Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), being chartered
in 1986, Diane has led many large-and complex development projects working
in the public, private commercial and NGO sectors.
Working at senior Property Director level, operating across a wide range of
urban business sectors, coastal industry (land and marine based) and housing
gaining an in-depth and diverse knowledge of commerce with expertise across
all property types Diane then undertook a PhD at the University of Wales
before setting up her own consultancy practice. She is responsible for
managing and delivering urban and rural based economic and regeneration
projects within the UK and Overseas, including USA and Africa.
As well as having extensive project experience overseas, Diane is committed
to assisting third world regeneration and was over the period 2004-06
Chairperson for Commission 8 (Spatial Planning and Development) for the
International Federation of Surveyors (FIG). Diane currently holds the
position of chairman on the UK RICS delegation to FIG, as well as a working
group chairman on Informal settlements.
Throughout her career, Diane has recognised the importance of member
involvement in her professional association. She has maintained involvement
in a range of policy market Panels as well as skills panel, and working
parties. This is continued at all levels of interaction, including a member
of the Environment faculty board, a member of the RICS South West Regional
Board and Local association, responsible for delivering CPD to professional
in the Wessex area.
Diane is also an external examiner at Portsmouth University monitoring and
postgraduate degrees in Property Development and Coastal Resource
Dr Diane Dumashie, BSc, PhD, FRICS, APM,
Grange Road, Creech
Dorset BH20 5DG
Tel. + 44 1929 555 392
Fax + 44 1929 555 392