Implementing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure
for a Modern Kosovo
Murat MEHA, Kosovo, Joep CROMPVOETS, Belgium, Muzafer
ÇAKA and Denis PITARKA, Kosovo
This paper was presented at the FIG Working Week in Sofia, Bulgaria,
17-21 May 2015. The paper describes how to work on the strategy and implementation for
a National Spatial Data Infrastructure in a modern society. Kosovo is
used as example. The strategy that is developed is based on INSPIRE, and
a road map for the implementation is also included.
In the context of the Real Estate Cadastre and Registration Project,
the Kosovo Cadastral Agency (KCA) is currently working on the
development of a strategy for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure
(NSDI) of the Republic of Kosovo. This NSDI aims to transform the way
spatial data and services are shared within Kosovo so it may underpin
national social and economic development to the benefit of all. An
incremental and sustainable implementation path is needed so
stakeholders move from the current state of disparate GIS systems to an
integrated and harmonised infrastructure for sharing spatial data. The
strategy is strongly based on the principles of the EU Directive INSPIRE
(Directive 2007/2/EC on ‘establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial
Information in the European Community’). The strategy refers to relevant
issues such as the vision/mission, objectives, list of stakeholders,
funding model, NSDI-implementation costs and benefits, governance
structure, communications plan and other issues (such as outreach and
capacity building). Moreover, it includes a road map for the
implementation. A final version of the strategy plan is scheduled for
April 2015. Implementing the strategy will contribute to the formation
of a modern Kosovo.
Në kontekstin e Projektit për Regjistrimin e Pasurisë së Paluajtshme
në Kadastër, Agjencia e Kadastrës e Kosovës (AKK) është duke punuar në
zhvillimin e një strategjie për Infrastrukturë Kombëtare të
Informacionit Hapësinorë (IKIH) të Republikës së Kosovës. Kjo IKIH synon
ta transformojë mënyrën e përdorimit të përbashkët të të dhënave
hapësinore dhe të shërbimeve në Kosovë, kështu që të mund të përforcojë
zhvillimin kombëtar social dhe ekonomik në të mirë të të gjithëve. Në
mënyrë që aktorët të lëvizin nga gjendja aktuale e sistemeve të ndryshme
të GIS-it tek një infrastrukturë e integruar dhe e harmonizuar për
përdorimin e përbashkët të të dhënave hapësinore, nevojitet një mënyrë e
qëndrueshme zbatimi, e cila mënyrë është në rritje. Strategjia është
bazuar fuqimisht në parimet e Direktivës së BE-së INSPIRE ( Direktiva
2007 /2 / KE mbi ' krijimin e infrastrukturës për informacionin
hapësinor në Komunitetin Evropian"). Strategjia i referohet çështjeve të
rëndësishme siç janë: vizioni / misioni, objektivat, lista e
aksionarëve, modeli i financimit, kostot e zbatimit të IKIH -së,
strukturën e qeverisjes, si dhe çështje të tjera (duke përfshirë
shpërndarjen dhe ngritjen e kapaciteteve ) . Një version përfundimtar i
planit të strategjisë është planifikuar për në prill të vitit 2015.
The Republic of Kosovo is undergoing enormous political, cultural and
social transformation (OECD, 2013). As part of this
ongoing-transformation of the country, there is increasing recognition
of the importance of spatial information underpinning effective decision
making for policy, spatial planning, implementation, and analysis
purposes at national and local levels (INSPIRATION, 2014).
The Republic of Kosovo is to become a member of the European
Union (EU). The government of Kosovo has placed a high priority on the
integration with the European directives including the INSPIRE Directive
(No. 2007/2/EC) (European Commission, 2007).
The government of Kosovo has recognised the importance of developing
a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Pursuant the Law on
Cadastre No. 04 L/013 (Official Gazette of Republic of Kosovo Nr. 13 / 1
September 2011), article 23, the Kosovo Cadastral Agency (KCA) has given
responsibility for its coordination. Moreover, the Law on the
Establishment of a National Spatial Information Infrastructure in the
Republic of Kosovo has been drafted and it is in the process to be
adopted by the parliament (Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning,
2014). This Law is formulated in such a way that it is strongly aligned
with the INSPIRE Directive.
The KCA was established in 2000. It is an executive agency under the
Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP), and is, besides the
issues related to the development of the NSDI of Kosovo, mainly
responsible for developing and implementing the cadastre, maintaining
land registers and mapping topography in the Republic of Kosovo. In
order to coordinate and establish a successful NSDI, it is necessary to
have a high level plan to achieve one or more goals related to the
development of the NSDI. Therefore, KCA initiated the project
“Development of a strategy for National Spatial Data Infrastructure of
the Republic of Kosovo” funded by The World Bank as part of the overall
project “Real Estate Cadastre and Registration Project (RECAP)” (Kosovo
Cadastral Agency, 2013). The purpose of the project, running from
February 2014 until April 2015, is to define the NSDI Strategy for 2020
in the Republic of Kosovo and to train KCA staff members in particular
to become experts in the domain of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI).
The definition of the NSDI strategy has to happen in close cooperation
with the key stakeholders within the NSDI community referring to the
strategic direction, rationale, governance structure, financing,
outreach, capacity building, and implementation roadmap for the Kosovo
NSDI (Meha et al., 2014). Therefore, a NSDI-Stakeholders group is
The main objective of the NSDI Strategy is to transform the way
spatial data is shared within Kosovo so it may underpin national social
and economic development to the benefit of all. An incremental and
sustainable implementation is needed so stakeholders move from the
current state of disparate GIS systems to an integrated and harmonised
infrastructure for sharing spatial data (Meha et al., 2014).
Implementation of the NSDI will contribute to the development of a
modern Kosovo. Such modern state is “an organised territory with
definite geographical boundaries that are recognized by other states. It
has a body of law and institutions of government. Moreover, it is
dependent on the loyalty of citizens. The state offers protection,
order, justice, foreign trade, and facilitations of inner state trade in
exchange for this loyalty. The goal of the modern state is to maintain
order and happiness of its citizens is only reached by establishing
officials, courts of law and laws to abide by, soldiers to protect the
state, and systems of money for trade” (Breuilly, 1993; Answers.com).
The outline of the paper applies the following structure. The next
section briefly presents the current NSDI-situation followed by the
approach description. The follow-up sections present preliminary
outcomes of the strategy focussing respectively on the Strategic
NSDI-Vision and Mission, Strategic Objectives, Key Stakeholders, Funding
model, Implementation Costs and Benefits, Governance Structure,
Communications Plan, and other issues. The final section briefly refers
to the actions related to the next steps of the NSDI-strategy with the
emphasis on the implementation.
2. CURRENT SITUATION
Several NSDI-components have already (partly) been implemented (Meha
and Laarakker, 2011; Meha and Çaka, 2011; Meha et al., 2014), such as
the draft version of the Law (Ministry of Environment and Spatial
Planning, 2014), several public geospatial datasets, and the
establishment of the national geoportal.
As mentioned earlier, the Law on the Establishment of the Spatial
Information Infrastructure has been drafted. According to this Law, the
Kosovo NSDI includes metadata; spatial datasets and spatial data
services; network services and technologies; agreements on data sharing,
access and use and coordination and monitoring mechanisms, processes and
procedures, established, operated or made available in accordance with
this Law. It sets the foundation for the institutional framework and
defines the rules for data sharing, access and use (Ministry of
Environment and Spatial Planning, 2014).
Public geospatial datasets
Several geospatial datasets do exists. Relevant examples refer
to administrative boundaries, buildings, cadastral parcels, elevation,
geology, land cover, land use, orthophotos, roads, etc. These datasets
are provided by several public authorities. The most important data
producers/providers are: KCA, Kosovo Institute for Nature Protection,
Ministry of Forestry, Agriculture and Rural Development, and Kosovo
Agency of Statistics.
KCA launched the national geoportal June 2013 (see Figure 1). This
geoportal (http://geoportal.rks-gov.net) is developed in accordance to
INSPIRE standards meaning the inclusion of network services for
searching, viewing and downloading geospatial data. Being the first
geoportal in Kosovo, KCA paid extra attention to create a user friendly
web portal with lots of "help tools". Up to now there are more than 300
registered users, while the number of nonregistered users are expected
to be much higher. So far, the geoportal provides access to geospatial
data of KCA, Kosovo Agency Statistics and Municipality of Prishtina.
Examples of data that have become accesible by means of this electronic
facility are: addresses (of the main cities), administrative boundaries,
cadastral zones, orthophotos (2009/2012), utilities (water,
electricity), population distribution, and roads (Names/Segments).
Figure 1: Interface of Kosovo National Geoportal
As several NSDI-components are (partly) in place, the strategy
strongly focuses on the definitions of the strategic vision and mission;
objectives; governance structures; a proposed funding model;
identification of key stakeholders; estimation of the implementation
costs and benefits; the building of capacity through stakeholder
engagement and KCA staff training; and a road map for implementation. It
does not refer to important components related to the legal framework
and technologies as it was considered that these components are partly
The NSDI-Strategy distinguishes six building blocks of working:
- Strategic Vision, Mission and Objectives. The main objective of this
first building block is to create clarity of purpose and a unified
vision, to define objectives, and to list the key stakeholders;
- Finance. The main objective of this second building block is to
create a clearly articulated funding model and to estimate the costs and
benefits of the NSDI-implementation;
- Governance. The main objective of this third building block is to
specify a governance structure which enables effective collaboration and
political engagement to foster a transparent and open environment with
defined roles and responsibilities;
- Outreach and Capacity Building. The main objective of this
fourth building block is to outreach the NSDI-concept in Kosovo, and
build capacity through stakeholder engagement and KCA staff-training
- Delivery of NSDI Implementation Roadmap. The main objective of this
fifth building block is to set up a defined programme plan (road map)
with a clear time schedule of actions and effective mechanisms for
performance monitoring and implementation risk management;
- Strategy Report. The main objective of the sixth building block is to
report in which the findings of the building blocks are compiled into
one final document.
Implementing these six building blocks present the holistic and
comprehensive approach of the strategy covering a wide range of issues
necessary to make the Kosovo NSDI a success.
A series of group meetings with key NSDI-Stakeholders (see section 6)
are organised on a regular basis to raise their awareness of the
strengths of NSDI, to get their full implementation commitment, and to
receive their critical feedback on the (intermediate) project results.
In preparation to these meetings, draft versions on specific topics
are drafted based on detailed SDI-literature studies and discussions
with experts. These draft versions are reviewed, discussed and processed
by team members of KCA.
4. STRATEGIC VISION AND MISSION
Starting-point of the NSDI-strategy development is the statement
formulations concerning its vision and mission based on existing
literature and discussions with the members of KCA team and
The Vision statement for the Kosovo NSDI is: “The Kosovo NSDI will
make harmonised and high quality geographic information readily
available for formulating, implementing, monitoring and evaluating
policy and for the citizen to access spatial information, whether local,
national or international.”
The Mission statement for the Kosovo NSDI is: “To establish a
technological, institutional, legal and administrative framework for
inter-organisational collaboration that will:
Be in line with INSPIRE
Support e-governance and
Integrate geo-information from
different sources into one infrastructure;
Avoid duplication of spatial data
acquisition, storage, and maintenance;
Establish effective business
processes (in order to streamline the data flows in processes such as
spatial planning, emergency service, land registration);
Meet the needs of the
Promote the access, sharing, use
and distribution of spatial data.”
5. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
On the basis of discussions with the members of KCA team and the
NSDI-Stakeholders group, the following objectives have been formulated
for the further development of the NSDI of Kosovo:
- “Making available relevant, harmonised and
quality geographic information for the purpose of formulation,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of (environmental) policy
–making and for the citizen, along the lines of the general (INSPIRE)
- Data should be
collected only once and kept where it can be maintained most
- It should be
possible to combine seamless spatial information from different sources
across Kosovo and share it with many users and applications;
- It should be
possible for information collected at one level/scale to be shared with
all administrative levels; detailed for thorough investigations, general
for strategic purposes;
information needed for good governance at all levels should be readily
and transparently available;
- Easy to find
what geographic information is available, how it can be used to meet a
particular need, and under which conditions it be acquired and used”.
- “Furthermore, by establishing from the onset
cross-sectorial coordination mechanisms, the initiative wants to ensure
that in the longer term, the NSDI can be integrated into a broader
cross-sectorial NSDI, aiming at providing geographic information for the
purpose of national policy-making in a broad range of sectors, such as
transport, agriculture, …”
These objectives are strongly aligned with the EU INSPIRE Directive
and the draft Law on the Establishment of a Spatial Information
Infrastructure for the Republic of Kosovo.
6. KEY STAKEHOLDERS
During the organised NSDI-Stakeholders group meetings, the
participants were asked to identify the key stakeholders that need to be
involved in the implementation of the Kosovo NSDI resulting into the
- Association of Kosovo Municipalities
- Independent Commission for Mines and Minerals
- Geological Survey of Kosovo
- Institute for Spatial Planning
- Hydro-meteorological Institute
- Kosovo Agency for Energy Efficiency
- Kosovo Agency of Statistics
- Kosovo Cadastral Agency (KCA)
- Kosovo Institute for Nature Protection
- Kosovo Property Agency
- Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Rural Development
- Ministry of Culture, Youth, Sport and Non-Resident Issues
- Ministry of Economic Development
- Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Internal Affairs
- Ministry of Infrastructure
- Ministry of Kosovo Security Force
- Ministry of Local Government Administration
- Ministry of Public Administration
- Ministry of Trade and Industry
- Privatisation Agency of Kosovo
- KUR Pristina and other water supply companies
7. FUNDING MODEL
From discussions with the Kosovar NSDI-stakeholders and being aware
of the current situation, it appears that only a selected number of
funding models might be appropriate for funding the implementation of
the Kosovo NSDI.
Most activities for implementing the Kosovo NSDI can be funded by
Direct Central Government – referring to funding directly from citizens
and private sector taxes, or by means of Government and Donor Agencies
Joint Funding Partnerships (e.g. World Bank) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency,
2014a).The creation of partnerships amongst local and international
organisations with interest in SDI implementation might be interesting
and applicable. Examples of possible partnerships are: Government and
Donor agencies partnerships; Donor agencies and private sector
partnerships; Donor agencies, government and private sector
partnerships; and Partnerships with international private sector (e.g.
local-international private sector partnerships, international private
sector-government partnerships and local private sector-international
private sector-government partnerships). In the current context of
Kosovo, the most appropriate partnership is the first one: Government
and Donor agencies partnerships
A few activities can be funded by alternative models such as Donor
“Gift” Funding, Private Sector Non-Cash Contribution in terms of
services such as software development, advertising, and Indirect Revenue
from products and services related to spatial data such as real estate
registration (Kosovo Cadastral Agency, 2014a).
8. IMPLEMENTATION COSTS AND BENEFITS
The NSDI-strategy also includes estimates for implementing the NSDI
in Kosovo. Table 1 summarises the costs estimates for different relevant
activities. It distinguishes One-time set-up costs (referring to the
costs necessary for the NSDI-establishment) and Ongoing costs per year
(referring to the costs necessary for the NSDI-maintenance) for each
It appears that establishment activities related to data (such as
costs for transforming data in accordance with the INSPIRE Implementing
Rules) and information technology (such as web services installation,
hardware, software and licensing) are the most costly. The maintenance
(on-going) costs for information technology appears to be costly as
The costs for establishing the NSDI are estimated to be around Euro
1,300,000 (One-time set-up costs) and the annual maintenance costs
(Ongoing costs) around Euro 450,000 per year. More detailed information
can be found in report Cost-Benefit Analysis of implementing Kosovo NSDI
(Kosovo Cadastral Agency, 2014b).
Table 1: Activity estimates for NSDI-implementation
||One-time set-up Costs (Euros)
||Ongoing costs per year (Euros)
The National SDI in the Republic of Kosovo ideally should provide
benefits for all stakeholders at the national level. In particular, this
SDI should fit the demands of all participating stakeholders and should
provide an alignment with other SDI levels and include all previously
non-participating groups. As the number of participants is likely to
grow the data pool widens and more economies and benefits are realized.
The potential benefits of implementing the National SDI in the Republic
of Kosovo are manifold. Main benefits refer to the reducing costs of
data production/collection, eliminating duplication of acquisition
efforts, saving the costs of data accessibility (in time, money and
efforts), providing better available data for decision-making, creating
more efficient and more transparent governments at all levels,
facilitating the data provision for better service delivery, expanding
potential market through the formation of beneficial partnerships, and
improving policy formulations based on easily accessible geospatial data
(Kosovo Cadastral Agency, 2014b). In general, the NSDI of the Republic
of Kosovo could promote economic development, stimulate better
government and foster environmental sustainability in the country. The
main challenge of developing the NSDI is to ensure that these potential
benefits become reality.
Based on a review of existing costs benefits studies (see e.g.
Longhorn and Blakemore, 2008), it is very likely that the benefits of
establishing and maintaining the NSDI in the Republic of Kosovo will be
(much) greater than the costs.
9. GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE
The NSDI-governance structures of Croatia (Hećimović et al, 2013) and
the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Agency for Real Estate
Cadastre, 2012) formed the key inspirations for the development of the
governance structure of the NSDI in Kosovo and were discussed in detail
with members of KCA-team and NSDI-Stakeholders group.
Three levels of governance bodies are proposed: SDICouncil,
NSDICommittee, and Working Groups.
The executive NSDI governance body is the NSDI Council appointed by
the Kosovo government. The purpose of the NSDI Council is to provide
leadership and strategic direction for the implementation of the Kosovo
NSDI, and the implementation of actions relating to the EU INSPIRE
Directive. The NSDI Council will ensure that the necessary resources are
committed from the required parties as part of an annual NSDI work plan.
The NSDI Committee is responsible for managerial tasks. It will
ensure that the appropriate activities take place coordinated at the
right time and to the right quality standard in order to implement the
Kosovo NSDI and the activities required according to the Law and
The Working Groups provide specialist expert knowledge and opinions
for decision-making at the NSDI Council level, and assist the NSDI
Committee with the delivery of the NSDI. There will be working groups
established for the following themes: NSDI-Strategy implementation;
Institutional and legal issues; Technological issues; Public relations,
ommunication and capacity building; and Business model.
These governance bodies communicate with relevant
NSDI-Stakeholders/Partners and when needed provide technical support.
Figure 2 presents the governance structure of the NSDI as proposed in
the NSDI Strategy document.
Figure 2: Governance Structure of the NSDI
10. COMMUNICATIONS PLAN
A communication plan has been written to support the NSDI strategy as
well as its implementation. Because of the wide range of stakeholders
involved, it needs a broad approach and one that has to adapt to the
different stakeholder groups. For example, politicians will need a
regular “drip-feed” of information to keep them informed and this has to
be succinct and to the point, probably made via KCA, but also involving
other personal meetings if required. The final NSDI Strategy document
will be crucial but it should not come as a surprise; politicians should
have been kept informed of the main developments and consequences before
the final document is finalised. Another example refers to the data
producers. A group of stakeholders who are (mostly) already engaged and
regular meetings are needed to keep them involved so they are aware of
the developments and their commitments.
A wide range of channels need to be implemented to to get the NSDI
message to the various stakeholder audiences, including publications,
brochures, flyers, e-mail information channels, website, PowerPoint
presentations, Workshops, Conferences, Face-to-face meetings,
Newsletters, courses, etc.
11. OTHER ISSUES
The strategy document refers also to issues related to the outreach
of the NSDI-concept in Kosovo, and capacity building through stakeholder
engagement at NSDI-Stakeholder group meetings and workshops, and
training staff of KCA to become SDI-experts. These activities contribute
to the raise of awareness and engagement of stakeholders in the
NSDI-implementation process. In addition, the strategy also includes
examples of use cases of how the SDI will be used as well as pilot
applications for demonstrating the use of SDI. Activities related to
these issues are currently in progress. In addition, key issues related
to technology cannot be excluded and have to be included when necessary
(e.g. issues related to interoperability, standardisation, metadata and
12. NEXT STEPS
The follow-up actions refer to the implementation of the
NSDI-strategy for which a roadmap with a clear time schedule of actions
needs to be defined. This also includes the definition and application
of key performance indicators for monitoring the progress of the
implementation. Finally, a risk registry detailing the key risks on the
implementation of the NSDI with estimated probability, impact and
mitigation strategy needs to be developed. Activities related to these
issues are currently in progress.
In order to get full political commitment, it is important that a
high-level event around the presentation of the final version of the
strategy is organised. Such event could contribute to stimulate the
NSDI-debate among decision-makers and give an opportunity to place the
topic of SDI on the political agenda.
The aim of implementing the strategy for the Kosovo NSDI is to have a
platform facilitating the necessary harmonised and high quality
information to key stakeholders. In order to have a successful
implementation of the SDI, it is important to apply a holistic and
comprehensive approach taking into acount various components. Moreover,
it is also very important to intensively involve a wide range of
stakeholders in the implementation process who can potentially benefit
of the NSDI.
Starting point for the strategy development is the current
NSDI-situation; a draft version of the Law will soon be adopted by the
parliament, several geospatial datasets exist, and a national geoportal
has recently been launched.
The strategy includes vision/mission statements, descriptions of the
strategic objectives, a proposal for the funding model to be applied,
estimates of implementation costs, a governance structure presentation,
communication plan, and issues related to enhance outreach or strengthen
the NSDI-capacity building in the country (such NSDI-Stakeholders
meetings, workshops, KCA-staff training, use cases development, and
pilot applications demonstrations).
Finally, the resulting strategy document will also include the
roadmap for implementation with a list of potential associated risks.
When the infrastructure is fully implemented (taking also into account
the relevant technological and legal issues), it will be a cornerstone
for the further modernisation of Kosovo.
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INSPIRATION – Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Western Balkan,
Prof. Dr. Murat Meha
Kosovo Cadastral Agency
Kosovo archive building IInd floor, P.O. 10000
Tel. +381 38 512 355
Fax +381 38 512 356
Web site: www.kca-ks.org
Prof. dr. ir. Joep
KU Leuven – Public Governance Institute
Parkstraat 45, Box 3609, 3000
Tel. +32 16323134
Fax +32 323267
Kosovo Cadastral Agency
Kosovo archive building IInd floor, P.O. 10000
Tel. +381 38 512 416
Fax. +381 38 512 356
Kosovo Cadastral Agency
Kosovo archive building IInd floor, P.O. 10000
Tel. + 381 38 512 579
Fax + 381 38 512 356
Web site: www.kca-ks.org