Article of the Month -
A New Zealand Strategy for Cadastre 2034
Don GRANT, Mark DYER, Anselm HAANEN, New Zealand
1) At the XX FIG Congress
1994 in Melbourne, commission 7 initiated a working group looking at
trends and developments in the field of cadastre. It projected the
trends and developed visions of what cadastral systems might be in 20
years' time – thus today! Today we look at the visionary date of 2034
which has been proposed for an update of the FIG Cadastre 2014 strategy.
This paper was presented at the XXV FIG Congress in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia and focuses on the cadastral strategy for New Zealand and
proposes a number of significant changes to the cadastre. More
information about Cadastre 2014, click
New Zealand has an AAA (accurate, authoritative and
assured) digital cadastral system, based on a modern geodetic system and
supporting a digital land registration system. Landowners in New Zealand
have a high level of confidence in cadastral boundaries.
Despite these achievements, it is clear that the
current cadastral system will not be optimal for the next 10 – 20 years.
The rapid development of positioning and geospatial technology, together
with increasing expectations of the general public to be involved and
well informed, mean that changes will be required.
A cadastral strategy has been developed to prepare
for changes over the next 10 – 20 years. This matches the visionary date
of 2034 which has been proposed for an update of the FIG Cadastre 2014
The New Zealand strategy proposes a number of
significant changes to the cadastre. These include broadening the scope
of the cadastral system to cover the boundaries and extents of all
rights restrictions and responsibilities in land and real property, and
making information readily consumable by the general public. This will
require the cadastre to be fully three dimensional (3D) as well as
responsive to changes over time, so that cadastral information matches
the four dimensional world in which people live.
The critical role of the land-based property rights
system in supporting growth in the economy is increasingly well
recognised in New Zealand. De Soto (2003) essentially argues that
developed countries are rich because they have well developed property
rights systems. These encourage good investment and enable the creation
of capital for further development and innovation.
Similarly, there is increasing recognition of the
contribution that location based information can make to the
government’s social, economic, and environmental objectives. The
cadastral system lies at the conjunction of property rights and location
based information - supporting growth and national well-being.
At the same time, advances in consumer technology are
increasing the expectations of ordinary people that they should be kept
well informed about matters that affect them – such as their land-based
rights, restrictions and responsibilities. People will increasingly have
access to good positioning technology and tools for combining and
visualising location-based information.
These changes may very quickly result in the New
Zealand cadastral system not meeting the needs of the Crown, Māori,
government agencies, holders of rights and interests in land,
businesses, and society generally.
The strategy (LINZ 2013a), which is described in this
paper, provides a clearly stated vision towards which anticipated future
demands can be met by efficient investment and collaborative effort.
Earlier strategies have been focused on the needs of surveyors and
government agencies. While these are still important, this strategy is
also very much focused on the needs of ordinary people – citizens,
landowners, investors, etc.
Actions are already underway to realise the vision
for the New Zealand cadastral system.
2. STRATEGIC CONTEXT
2.1 FIG Cadastre 2014 and Cadastre 2034
The vision of Cadastre 2014 (Kaufman and Steudler,
1998) was developed by a working group of the International Federation
of Surveyors (FIG) from 1994 to 1998. Bevin (1999) assessed developments
in New Zealand, including the integrated automated survey and title
system known as Landonline, and concluded that New Zealand was well on
the way towards achieving the objective statements. Hirst (2010) also
assessed the progress of Australia and New Zealand towards the
objectives of Cadastre 2014 and proposed an update to the vision.
Kaufman (2012) discusses the movement towards FIG
acceptance of a view of Cadastre 2034 and variations in terminology such
as “cadastre” and “land administration”. Lemmens (2010) reviewed the
global progress towards 2014, through responses from 10 experts, and
proposed that FIG take the lead in developing a vision of how cadastres
should operate in 2034. It was suggested that this be based on six
features proposed by Bennett et al (2010).
These features, which are reflected within the New
Zealand Cadastre 2034 strategy, are: survey accurate to facilitate
layering of different spatial datasets; object oriented towards property
objects rather than parcels; 3D/4D to align with other 3D and time
variant datasets; real time to support continuous access and updates;
global to align with international standards and best practice; and
organic to model rights, restrictions and responsibilities based on the
de Rijcke and Hunter (2013) reviewed the New Zealand
consultation document A 10-20 year strategy for developing the cadastre
(LINZ, 2012) and identified similar needs in Canadian jurisdictions.
They identify three general principles for custodians of cadastral
information which the New Zealand 2034 vision supports:
- Governance must be citizen-centric - aimed at the
needs of citizens rather than (necessarily) the outputs of surveyors.
- Open and transparent governance - enabling citizens to inform
themselves through open access to information.
- Facilitating innovation – ensuring that there are opportunities for
public and private innovation – especially for data that serves a public
2.2 New Zealand Policy Framework
2.2.1 Government’s Information Policy
New Zealand has a Geospatial Strategy (LINZ, 2007)
which includes doing things once to an agreed standard, and then making
that information available to apply across a wide range of applications.
This is consistent with government’s declaration on open and transparent
government (Government CIO, 2013) which governs the availability and
release of government data. To support this declaration, the government
asserts that the data and information it holds on behalf of the public
must be open, trusted and authoritative, well managed, readily
available, without charge where possible, and reusable, both legally and
technically. Personal and classified data and information must be
2.2.2 ICSM National Strategy for Cadastral
Reform & Innovation
The Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and
Mapping (ICSM), which New Zealand is a member of, is currently
developing a National Strategy for Cadastral Reform and Innovation for
Australia. This strategy (ICSM, 2013) is still in draft form but is
aligned with the New Zealand strategy. Both the New Zealand and
Australian strategies are aimed at 2034 and both share the same vision
statement (discussed in section 4.1 below) while recognising the
different complexities in Australia with federal jurisdictions, each
with independent legislation and governance of their cadastral systems.
2.2.3 LINZ 10 Year View
Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) is developing a
10 year view of its future direction (LINZ, 2013b). This is aimed at the
areas where the department can apply focus, funding and people to the
greatest benefit for New Zealand. This 10 year view puts location
information at the heart of the strategic direction. A key component is
the concept of a “location system” which will enable diverse location
enabled information sets to be merged to gain new knowledge, provoke
better decisions and inspire innovation.
New Zealand’s property rights system will clearly be
a significant part of this location system – by enabling New Zealanders
to relate the intangible legal spaces (boundaries within which rights,
restrictions and responsibilities apply) with the tangible 3 dimensional
and dynamic world in which people make important decisions related to
the use of land and real property.
2.3 New Zealand Cadastral System
2.3.1 Fundamental Cadastre
In this strategy the term ‘fundamental cadastre’ is
used to describe the repository of cadastral survey datasets lodged with
LINZ and integrated into its database, and which are regulated by
legislation. These are the base cadastral units (Williamson et al, 2010)
underpinning the property rights system and comprise the primary land
parcels as well as secondary parcels such as easements.
2.3.2 Broader Cadastre
There exist other rights, restrictions and
responsibilities (RRR) in land which are created and managed in terms of
other legislation or rules of law and which are not clearly part of the
fundamental cadastral system. Some examples are:
licenses, such as for mining
Land use consents and designations (generally
public works or those of network utility operators)
rights to maintain public drains on private
These all impact on a landowner’s use and enjoyment
of their land and arguably do fall within the description of the
property rights system. The term ‘broader cadastre’ is used to describe
the repository of data and information about the extents and boundaries
of these other rights, restrictions and responsibilities
2.3.3 Characteristics of the Current Cadastral
The management of the cadastral system in New Zealand
is governed by legislation. Legal boundaries are defined by physical
evidence. Coordinates record the position in the spatial database but
they are highly variable over time, and in their accuracy in relation to
the physical evidence of boundaries, reflecting the historical method of
boundary capture of individual surveys. Coordinates are also affected by
earth deformation. Coordinates have minimal legal standing in the
fundamental cadastre because the common law of boundary definition
assigns high evidential weight to undisturbed boundary marks.
The spatial database within Landonline is, in
essence, two dimensional. Changes over time also occur as new
information comes to hand. This new information is most commonly new
cadastral survey datasets but changes are also made as a result of the
integration of new geodetic data, including in response to deep seated
ground movement as in the recent Canterbury earthquake events.
There are different tenure systems in New Zealand for
recording RRRs. For example, Crown land rights are dealt with
differently from rights held in titles under the land registration
system, which are dealt with differently from rights to Crown Minerals.
RRRs related to such matters as electricity transmission lines or public
drains are generally not available through the cadastral system unless
they are registered as easements.
2.3.4 Maori Rights in Land
The effective utilisation of Māori land is important
for social, cultural and economic wellbeing. Māori also have customary
methods for managing RRRs. Increasingly, modern spatial techniques are
being used to assist the management of not only Māori land but also
other traditional resources. Any recording of culturally sensitive
information, including waahi tapu (sacred places), in the broader
cadastre needs to be appropriately managed.
The concept of kaitiakitanga (exercise of customary
guardianship) is increasingly embodied in statute. The cadastral system
of the future should be sufficiently flexible to enable the fulfilment
of Māori aspirations and Treaty of Waitangi obligations, and so return
benefits to Māori and New Zealand generally.
2.3.5 Dynamic Management of Coordinates
New Zealand’s position across the boundary of
tectonic plates means that it is faced with the challenges of a dynamic
earth influencing coordinates and boundaries as they change over time.
Consequently there needs to be a means of relating the spatial extent of
rights at the time they were created to their current position.
The cadastral survey system therefore depends on a
modern and effective national geodetic system in order to make the
connection between the social and legal purpose of creating and defining
the extents of RRRs, and the dynamic earth (the land) on which they are
situated. Advances in positioning technology, combined with research in
geophysics, are expected to increase our ability to model the earth and
its dynamics, enabling certainty in three dimensions to be maintained
over time. This will help maintain confidence that the up-to-date
locations of digital boundaries recorded in the cadastre are aligned
with the real world boundary positions.
2.3.6 Heights and a Three Dimensional Cadastre
Most rights do not have any specified height limits
despite their application in a three dimensional (3D) world. However,
increasingly boundaries are being defined in three dimensions to cover
rights in multi-storey buildings, underground environments (including
tunnels, passageways), and airspace. 3D rights are recorded using plan
graphics (see Figure 1) rather than 3D objects.
Figure 1: Recording, Depiction, and Visualisation of 3D rights in 2D
There is currently no standardised digital way of
representing 3D objects in cadastral datasets other than by the
traditional drawings of plans, sections, and elevations. Users
increasingly expect land and building developments and associated rights
to be digitally accessible and viewable in 3D.
2.3.7 Relating Legal Spaces to the Physical
The traditional method of providing a physical
representation of boundaries has been by the placement of boundary pegs.
However such boundary marks are not used for many lesser rights such as
easements and covenants, and they cannot be used in some situations
(particularly for 3D rights). In some cases physical features such as
buildings are used to define the boundary. The future cadastre will need
to enable people to relate legal spaces to the physical world in more
3. STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
An early decision was made to develop the strategy in
a broadly consultative manner. This reflected the view that the cadastre
is not only relevant for cadastral surveyors but is critically important
to a wide range of stakeholders and the public.
Two workshops with a reference group were held and a
consultative draft strategy was prepared (LINZ, 2012a). Feedback was
sought from the public generally via the LINZ website (including an
on-line forum), as well as engaging with a wide range of stakeholders.
A total of 37 written submissions were received as
well as discussion in the on-line forum, reflecting careful
consideration given to the issues, potential benefits, and possible
solutions. The vast majority of submitters were positive and in support
(Grant and Dyer, 2012).
3.2 Feedback and Key Issues
All submissions were reviewed in detail and a summary
published on the LINZ website.
Main points raised were:
A need to clearly define ‘cadastre’ and
‘cadastral system’ and their component parts including suggestions
for data modelling, data management and data interchange
Linking the cadastre to international standards
to assist addressing issues of interoperability and user interfaces
Strong support for maintaining primary focus on
the fundamental cadastre and caution that broadening the cadastre
including the use of Volunteered Geographic Information, may
undermine the integrity and confidence in the fundamental cadastre.
Maori land should be included and suggestions
made about ‘interests’ in relation to physical features or
Crown land is currently considered difficult to
deal with and lacks the efficiencies that apply to general land
Improving accessibility to information about
rights to minerals, if not the mineral deposits themselves
Support for the broader cadastre and in
particular the inclusion of land uses, buildings, geotechnical
information, and natural hazard restrictions
The success of the strategy requires sustainable
funding and several submitters said that the costs should be borne
by beneficiaries and not just those transacting.
Following analysis of submissions, and giving some
consideration to the emerging Australian strategy (ICSM, 2013), the
final vision presented in the strategy is:
A cadastral system that enables people to
readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all
rights, restrictions, and responsibilities related to land and real
To achieve this vision:
People will need accurate spatial positioning
(expected to be delivered by advances in technology)
People will need easy access to accurate and
trusted spatial information on all relevant boundaries
People will need information technology that
enables them to visualise this boundary information relative to the
real world or spatial information about the real world (expected to
be delivered by advances in technology)
The spatial accuracy of information about
boundaries will need to match the needs of landowners and others for
the definition of boundaries
The cadastral system will need to receive and
maintain information on boundaries to the required confidence levels
The strategy identifies a series of goals that need to be achieved
in order to realise the vision.
4.2 The Goals
4.2.1 Goal 1 – Maintain public confidence as
the cadastral system is developed
Whatever changes and enhancements are made to the
fundamental cadastre, the Surveyor-General is required to ensure that
the public continue to have confidence in the integrity of the system.
The system must be well governed, protected from emerging risks and
future-proofed to accommodate new rights and needs of society.
For the vision to be achieved for all RRRs, this
public confidence will also be extended to the broader cadastre. These
other RRRs affect people’s use and enjoyment of land. The confidence
required for the less regulated RRRs in the broader cadastre may be at a
different level but, to maximise the potential of the property rights
system, governance, protection and future-proofing will be extended at
an appropriate level to these broader RRRs.
Three sub-goals have been identified in relation to
achieving this primary goal of maintaining public confidence.
Sub goal 1a – Governance
An appropriate governance structure will ensure that
a strategic approach is taken to the management and development of the
cadastral system, providing benefits to all stakeholders over the long
term. Sustainable funding models will be in place based on, and derived
from, the broader cadastral system.
The cadastral system will be sustained
professionally. This is particularly important for the fundamental
cadastre but also applies to the management of the broader cadastre.
Active leadership is provided from within the surveying profession.
Surveyors and other land-related practitioners will be engaged, and
cadastral surveying will be valued and attractive ensuring that skills
and knowledge will be maintained.
Sub goal 1b – Disaster protection and security
The cadastral system will be safe from interference
or disaster over the very long term. Records with enduring value
(whether digital or paper based) will be preserved, protected and
recoverable. Security systems will prevent unauthorised access and
change. The system will be recoverable following physical damage or
Sub goal 1c – Research and future-proofing
Research on cadastral systems will ensure that the
system can respond to emerging needs and risks – especially those
resulting from new technology. The research will be strategically driven
and funded, benefitting from collaboration where possible.
4.2.2 Goal 2 – The cadastre includes the
extents of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities
The RRRs relating to land and real property will be
identified and appropriate information about their boundaries will be
accommodated within the cadastral system. All types of tenure (Crown,
Māori, General, minerals, local government, etc.) will be in the
cadastre. The cadastral system makes clear what rights are included.
4.2.3 Goal 3 – Complete spatial representation
of rights, restrictions and responsibilities
The cadastre will include the boundaries of RRRs in a
form that allows them to be visualised in relation to each other.
Five sub-goals have been identified in relation to
achieving this primary goal of achieving completeness of the spatial
Sub goal 3a – All boundaries of rights,
restrictions and responsibilities are spatially represented
All boundaries of the RRRs in the fundamental
cadastre that currently only have a graphical or textual description,
will be upgraded to be spatially represented. In addition, all other
rights in the broader cadastre will also have a spatial representation
of their boundaries.
Some types of RRRs in the fundamental cadastre are
not fully spatially represented, while some RRRs in the broader cadastre
do not have spatial representation of their boundaries.
This will be addressed in part, by the development
and implementation of policies and rules for the spatial depiction of
all RRRs, including the back capture of existing RRRs that lack spatial
Sub goal 3b – The accuracy of spatial
representation matches the accuracy of the boundaries
The quality of spatial representation recorded in the
cadastre will match the accuracy standards of the defined boundaries of
the RRRs. Goal 4 addresses the accuracy standards of the defined
boundaries. Spatial accuracy standards will be developed, especially for
accuracy, for boundaries in the broader cadastre.
Sub goal 3c – Rights, restrictions and
responsibilities can be spatially represented in three dimensions
Even though most rights have traditionally been
captured in 2D form, they will be capable of being represented in a form
that enables encroachments and conflicts at different heights to be
The cadastre will allow the modelling of the spatial
extents of RRRs, including those with defined height limits, to be
closely related to the 3D physical world e.g. buildings, mines, air
space, water space.
Current systems are not sufficient to transfer,
manage, and visualise 3D data. NZ Vertical Datum 2009 is not a vertical
datum of sufficient accuracy and usability to support all RRRs.
Actions include: the development and implementation
of a geodetic strategy that supports a dynamic 3D cadastre (including a
dynamic datum); improvement in the accuracy of the vertical datum and
geoid model to support 3D RRRs; and development of a system of dynamic
coordinates so recorded positions match those on the ground, whether
caused by slow ground movement or catastrophic deformation. Tools will
be developed to create, transfer, manage, visualise and depict 3D
Sub goal 3d – Changes in rights, restrictions and
responsibilities over time can be spatially represented
New RRR’s are created and existing RRR’s extinguished
or modified over time. The spatial representation will reflect these
changes to RRRs over time including enabling an historic view at any
time. The retention and management of all data relevant to the broader
cadastre over time will be encouraged.
Sub goal 3e – The spatial representation of
rights, restrictions and responsibilities reflects changes in location
Some boundaries based on natural features may move
continuously with that feature e.g. public access strips along water
boundaries. In these cases the spatial representation will reflect the
information currently available on that feature and the historical
location. The spatial representation of title boundaries based on
natural features will only move when the title is updated.
Changes in location arising from tectonic earth
movement whether slow and continuous or as a result of earthquakes may
result in boundaries moving. The spatial representation of boundaries
will respond to available geodetic information enabling the location to
be determined at the time the right was created or at any subsequent
4.2.4 Goal 4 – The quality of the boundaries of
rights, restrictions and responsibilities matches the need
The quality of the boundaries of RRR’s will be fit
for purpose. Different accuracies, supported by standards, will be used,
depending on such factors as the type of environment and risk of
conflict e.g. rural v urban v maritime boundaries; underground utility
services in urban areas; restrictions related to cultural or heritage
4.2.5 Goal 5 – The cadastral system efficiently
receives information from sources with appropriate levels of trust
The spatial representation of RRRs in the fundamental
cadastre will have tightly controlled sources and processes to ensure
standards are met. In the case of the broader cadastre more flexibility
may be appropriate.
The means of capture will be efficient, making the
best use of technology. The source will be identified, allowing an
indication of confidence. In all cases, principles of transparency,
liability, and competency will be applied.
There is currently a lack of adequate validation
tools relevant to the source, especially for third party use (for data
from both trusted sources and other sources). Non-Landonline databases
do not have access to live Landonline data, resulting in duplicated
effort to maintain those databases. There is a lack of suitable systems
for holding the data and unknown authority and reliability of cadastral
data in the broader cadastre, especially where the data is not from a
Actions include: the development of readily
accessible validation tools for non-fundamental data, and the
development of systems for holding non-fundamental cadastral data (from
both trusted and other sources). This may require change in legislation.
4.2.6 Goal 6 – People have access to cadastral
data which is able to be integrated with other data
Cadastral information will be readily available in
real-time through channels that meet user needs. The delivery mechanisms
will be sufficiently flexible to take advantage of technology and
changing societal demands.
This does not mean that LINZ will necessarily be the
holder of all information. Rather it suggests that a user can access
information on the location of RRRs from multiple sources, perhaps
through tailored portals.
Any conflicts or uncertainty within the cadastre will
be identified and transparent. Access to data will be limited only by
security, privacy, and cultural sensitivity principles.
Key actions identified include researching geospatial
standards including ISO 19152:2012 and, if necessary, developing
principles and standards to enable non-spatial linkages between
datasets. A system of dynamic coordinates will also be a key action to
achieve this goal.
Custodians of cadastral data will make it readily available to third
parties and each other, consistent with the geospatial strategy
(standards, interoperability, stewardship principles, etc). Custodians
will also ensure that the public have access to cadastral data that can
be integrated through channels and interfaces that meet user needs.
Protocols will be developed so users understand the completeness or
otherwise of the data in relation to RRRs.
4.3 Initial Activities and Progress
Running in parallel with the development of the New
Zealand Cadastre 2034 strategy are a number of other significant
initiatives within LINZ. These are broadly consistent with the strategy
and will develop business cases for specific developments. Those
business cases, if approved by government, will contribute towards the
implementation of the Cadastre 2034 strategy and realization of its
vision and goals.
4.3.1 Better Property Services
Better Property Services (LINZ, 2013c) is a
Ministerial priority identified in the LINZ Statement of Intent
2013-2016 (LINZ 2013d) which sets the 4 year strategic direction for the
department. This project involves working across government agencies
that have a role in management of land and property related services
including the provision of information.
The Better Property Services vision is for integrated
provision of government-mandated location-based property information and
services. This would enable anyone seeking to buy, sell, build,
renovate, develop or live on a property to access the information and
services they need via a service that shows all the RRRs for that
property. This future would provide a seamless customer experience,
based on integrated, up-to-date, digital and location-based information,
even though the supporting backroom functions may be separately managed.
This will not only encompass the fundamental
cadastral and land registration systems managed by LINZ, but also other
land-based property related services such as consents for resource
management (land development) and building consents. The collaboration
between government agencies will identify the benefits of a
cross-government service and provide a coherent and unified government
policy framework for the broader cadastral system.
This initiative will contribute to the actions in the
strategy to provide a cross agency policy direction, governance, funding
and collaboration to advance a New Zealand property rights system that
extends beyond the fundamental cadastre to the broader cadastre.
4.3.2 Advanced Survey & Title Services
LINZ’s, Landonline system (Haanen et al, 2002), has
transformed the survey and title systems of New Zealand (Muir and
Armitage, 2013). Since 2007, 100% of cadastral survey and land
registration transactions have been lodged in electronic form including
structured attribute data. The processing and registration of 85% of
land registration transactions is fully automated and all other
cadastral and title transactions have automated business rules applied
to assist approval.
Nevertheless, the system faces some challenges. The
technology is becoming outmoded and has not kept up with customer IT
environments. The user interface does not meet modern expectations and
enhancements to the system are slow and expensive (ibid).
LINZ is developing an indicative business case to
government to develop the system. The preferred option will provide for
greater interoperability with other property and location information
systems, improve the user interface including greater compatibility with
surveyor’s software, make provision for 3D cadastral capabilities and
will improve access to information in other tenure systems such as Crown
land and Māori land (ibid).
This initiative will contribute to the actions in the
strategy to provide for 3D cadastral information, enhance validation
tools for cadastral survey data, and improve the linkages between the
cadastre and other tenure systems.
4.3.3 Digital Parcel Improvement
The Landonline programme included a survey conversion
project to upgrade the spatial accuracy of 70% of the land parcels in
New Zealand to meet the accuracy standards of the applicable survey
regulations (Rowe, 2003). This capture was aimed at providing
significant processing efficiencies for new cadastral survey datasets,
and focused on urban and peri-urban areas which provided the best
cost/benefit ratio. The remaining 30% of parcels however, make up 50% of
all boundary corners and cover almost 95% of the New Zealand land mass.
The spatial accuracy of the unimproved digital
parcels is variable and uncertainties in the range of 10-100 metres are
not uncommon (LINZ 2013e). Improvements in spatial accuracy occur in a
slow and uncoordinated manner as new cadastral surveys are lodged and
integrated into the system. It is estimated that without increased
investment in people, tools and methodologies, it will take many decades
to upgrade the bulk of the remaining 30% of parcels to survey accuracy.
LINZ is therefore preparing an indicative business case (LINZ 2013e) for
funding to improve the spatial accuracy to provide survey accurate
digital parcels in high priority areas and to meet the coverage required
by current and future users.
This initiative will contribute to the actions in the
strategy to ensure that the spatial accuracy of digital boundaries
matches the accuracy standards for survey definition.
New Zealand was an early adopter and implementer of
the FIG Cadastre 2014 vision (Kaufman and Steudler 1998; Bevin 1999).
New Zealand has begun working towards the updated vision in Cadastre
2034, even before 2014 arrives.
LINZ has recognised the significant contribution that
can be made to New Zealand’s future growth through the development of a
location system in general and the property rights system in particular.
LINZ is actively working across agencies to establish the policy and
governance frameworks and is developing business cases for government
support for the needed developments including those of a broader
The vision, goals and actions identified in the
strategy will not be easily achieved. However Cadastre 2034 is seen as a
challenging but achievable target for the New Zealand cadastre.
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de Rijcke, I. and Hunter, A. (2013) A Vision for the
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for Developing the Cadastre: Knowing the Extent of Land-Related Rights.
Presented at NZIS Conference, Invercargill, New Zealand.
Haanen, A., Bevin, T., Sutherland, N. (2002, April)
e-Cadastre-Automation of the New Zealand Survey System. Presented at FIG
2002 Congress, Washington USA
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Zealand, now and the future. Proceedings, FIG Congress 201, Sydney,
ICSM (Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying &
Mapping), (2013) Cadastre 2034 – Powering Land and Real Property:
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia – A National Strategy.
Kaufman, J. (2012) Towards Cadastre 2034. Proceedings
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vision for a future cadastral system. International Federation of
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Zealand Geospatial Strategy.
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Year Strategy for Developing the Cadastre: Knowing the Extent of
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the ‘where’ of land-related rights.
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LINZ (Land Information New Zealand), (2013d)
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and Title System – Repositioning for the Future. Presented at 2013
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Don Grant was the New Zealand Surveyor General
until February 2014 when he took up the position of Associate Professor
in Geospatial Science at RMIT University. He holds a BSc Honours in
Physics from Canterbury University, a Diploma in Surveying from Otago
University and a PhD in Surveying from the University of New South
Wales. He registered as a surveyor in 1979 and is a Licensed Cadastral
Mark Dyer is a Registered Professional
Surveyor and was Director of Canmap Hawley Limited until April 2014 when
he took up the position of New Zealand Surveyor-General. He holds a
Bachelor of Surveying from the University of Otago, and a Post Graduate
Diploma in Resources and Environmental Planning from the University of
Waikato. He is a Licensed Cadastral Surveyor, and a Past President and
Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Surveyors.
Anselm Haanen is the New Zealand Deputy
Surveyor-General. He holds a Master of Surveying degree from the
University of Otago, obtained registration in 1983 and is a Licensed
Cadastral Surveyor. He has provided advice on Land Information Systems
and spent 2 years in Fiji as Advisor to the Fiji Land Information
System. More recently he was technical leader in the build of the
Landonline survey-accurate cadastral database.
Dr Don Grant
Associate Professor in Geospatial Science
GPO Box 2476
Melbourne, Victoria 3001
Tel. +61 3 9925 2424
Web site: http://www.rmit.edu.au