Article of the Month -
Thinking about e-Learning
Prof. Bela MARKUS, Hungary
This article in .pdf-format (15
pages and 578 kB)
1) This paper was prepared and
presented as a keynote presentation at the FIG International Workshop
2008 ”Sharing Good Practices: E-learning in Surveying, Geo-information
Sciences and Land Administration” in Enschede, the Netherlands, 11-13
Key words: e-Learning, education, knowledge management,
The economy of information society is based on the creation,
dissemination and exploitation of data, information and knowledge. This
will be one of the dominant features of this century, and will play a
fundamental role in generating a recovery in growth and an increase in
employment. The extended use of the potential offered by information and
communication technologies (ICT) will create new service markets; will
speed-up administrative and decision-making procedures. Developments in
the ICT have also had a huge effect on the learning environments.
For the period of 2007-2010 an FIG Working Group (WG 2.2) was
established by Commission 2 (Professional Education) on e-Learning. The
introduction gives an overview of the structure of Commission 2 and its
mission and workplan for the period of 2007 – 2010.
This paper aimed to be a discussion paper on the main objectives of
WG 2.2 – e-Learning. What is e-Learning? By the simplest definition:
e-Learning is a learning process created by interaction with digitally
delivered content, network-based services and tutoring support. Adding
more details on methodology: e-Learning is any technologically mediated
learning using computers whether from a distance or in face to face
classroom setting (computer assisted learning), it is a shift from
traditional education or training to ICT-based personalized, flexible,
individual, self-organized, collaborative learning based on a community
of learners, teachers, facilitators, experts etc. Broadening our view
wider: cultural and social impacts are key defining characteristics.
e-Learning is a foundation of the globally networked and interdependent
economy, which is advanced by ICT.
The author presents the status, trends and the importance of business
models of e-Learning.
How have computers and internet changed our live? Well the society,
science and technology around our profession are changing rapidly. We
can search almost everything, learn and communicate anytime (24/7) and
anywhere (mobile computing). The rapid developments of the last decades
in surveying techniques, technologies and methodologies create growing
need for continuous changes in education and an increasing demand for
continuing professional development. In contrast to the field of
Geographical Information Systems (GIS), in surveying there are only few
training services offered mainly by instrument or software companies or
by the academic sector (Willgalis, 2006). Today, the universities or
companies - based on their own limited resources - are not able to
respond the exponentially growing demands. There is a strong must for
international cooperation in educational developments, however, contrary
to the field of Geoinformation Technologies in our profession there are
only few examples of these international co-operations, there is a lack
of collaborations in networked education. One of the main reasons
probably that the surveying community and our traditional market is
relatively very small, but from the other side, there is a lack of broad
“political” recognition of a “surveyor”, as defined by the International
Federation of Surveyors (FIG). International programmes often sponsor
Spatial Data Infrastructure developments, but the communication about
the essential role of surveyors within SDI is not satisfactory.
Coordinated marketing of the surveying profession is needed at an
international level targeting both our clients and to the public
(Mahoney et al., 2007).
The above mentioned facts were recognized by FIG Commission on
Professional Education and responded by its mission statements, which
aim to promote good practices:
- Endorsing universities and other educational organisations to
explore the needs of society and to manage in a pro-active way the
necessary changes in the “knowledge age”.
- Supporting academic institutions and industry with new methods
of knowledge management, helping surveyors continuously to update
their academic and professional profiles.
- Advancing educational business and curriculum tuning processes.
- Promoting content development experiences, facilitating
international researches in surveying education and training and to
initiate joint projects on this field (curriculum development,
educational material development, joint courses, quality assurance
- Strengthening knowledge transfer between FIG Commissions,
inspiring activities on knowledge networks.
- Improving dissemination of information on educational theory and
practice to the members across the world.
- Reinforcing contacts to Educational Commissions of International
Organisations on the related professions.
For the realization of the mission the following Working Groups (WG)
- WG 2.1 Curriculum development: Quality curriculum and
instruction are - as they have always been - the bedrock of
education and the way to developing thoughtful and competent
professionals. The curriculum should ensure that the learners gain
knowledge as effectively and efficiently as possible.
- WG 2.2 e-Learning: To successfully disseminate the knowledge, it
is essential to have an up-to-date learning environment. Thanks to
the development in information and communication technologies, there
have been lots of possibilities and tools re-engineer the classical
teaching methods. Because of e-Learning methods are expected to play
an increasing role in professional education there is a growing need
for knowledge transfer on this field.
- WG 2.3 Educational Management and Marketing: Knowledge
dissemination is not only a methodological or technical problem.
Institutes have to own the rights how the learning materials may be
available for others, as well as taking commercial aspects into
- WG 2.4 Real Estate Valuation and Management Education: This is a
joint WG with Commission 9 to ensure that the surveying education
keeps up with the rapidly changing and challenging field of real
Fig. 1. Key issues for handling changes in professional education
Curriculum development, e-Learning methods and tools and Educational
Management are strongly intertwined key issues for handling changes in
professional education (Fig. 1). Curriculum development was discussed in
our Prague workshop (Cepek, 2007). Our next workshop in Vienna (2009) is
dedicated to Educational Marketing and Management. This paper aims to
share my thoughts and to give an overview of the status and trends of
2. E-LEARNING FEATURES
One of the key issues in pedagogy is individualization: adaptation
the teaching to the needs of individual learners. In most cases,
however, IT supported education has so far focussed mainly on
transferring existing courses onto the web, just making traditional
teaching even more widely available. The new web technologies
- have potential regarding the creation of more intelligent
e-Learning applications, providing individualization without a
prohibitive increase in man-power,
- make models of each student, i.e., a profile showing her/his
background, learning needs, preferences in terms of teaching
methods, and constraints.
What is e-Learning? By the simplest definition: e-Learning is a
learning process created by interaction with digitally delivered
content, network-based services and tutoring support. This definition
focuses on the revolutionary impact of network-enabled technology.
Adding more details on methodology: e-Learning is any technologically
mediated learning using computers whether from a distance or in face to
face classroom setting (computer assisted learning), it is a shift from
traditional education or training to ICT-based personalized, flexible,
individual, self-organized, collaborative learning based on a community
of learners, teachers, facilitators, experts etc. Blended learning is an
integrated approach that applies a mix of e-Learning and traditional
education. Broadening our view: cultural and social impacts are key
defining characteristics. e-Learning is a foundation of the globally
networked and interdependent economy, which is advanced by ICT.
Fig. 2. e-Learning definitions (Source: Cognitive Design
e-Learning infrastructure incorporates at least five functions
- Learning, which generate knowledge in our brain, we remember
lessons learned, and use if needed.
- Information support and coaching: while learning is directed at
enhancing individual capacity, this function focuses on building
- Knowledge management, which aims to collect documents,
practices, and solutions in an organized way, and facilitates wide
- Interaction and collaboration: ICT can be used to engage, blend,
and stimulate learners.
- Guidance and tracking: new technology enables more and better
guidance, assessment, tracking, and information. Learning management
systems can guide individuals towards critical skills and assets to
meet their needs.
Some of the most important features of e-Learning are listed below:
- Learning services designed using learner-centred approaches,
accommodate a variety of delivery methods and multiple learning
- e-Learning cuts the costs, shorten product development cycles,
less expensive to produce and maintain, reduces costs for the
e-Learning service providers. Learning standards create
interoperable objects that cut costs and development time. By
developing jointly learning materials the expenses are relatively
smaller. e-Learning programs can reduce the participation fees
without negatively affecting the compensation for high quality
presenters. Overall costs for learners, travel time and other
associated costs are also reduced.
- Learning is self-paced, gives learners a chance to speed up or
slow down as needed. Learning is self-directed, allowing to
understand the content in an effective way.
- On-demand access, learning can happen when needed. Learning
materials and most of the support are available 24/7. Learning does
not require physical presence, however, fosters better
- Promotes greater student interaction and advances collaboration.
e-Learning uses interactive technology to develop fun, engaging,
effective simulations. Collaborative learning in the online
environment is often far easier and more comfortable than in the
classroom. Companies can share working experiences, staff members
can quickly learn the inner technologies and techniques. e-Learning
systems allow team members at collaborating companies to understand
- Drive business transformation or change. New processes can be
implemented faster with an educated staff. Employers can train staff
members to handle sophisticated tasks without risking production
- Learning, education and training on new technologies and methods
increase employee efficiency and collaboration, improve computer and
Internet skills, knowledge sharing keeps skills current.
- Geographical barriers of learning are eliminated. e-Learning
opens global opportunities. The technologies allow the ability to
use tools and resources that are impossible in a traditional
In summary we need e-Learning infrastructure that:
- easy and fast to develop, on low costs,
- allow high interactivity with quick response time,
- require short timeslots from learners without leaving their
- increasing effectiveness.
In e-Learning technology innovations have expanded from the
stand-alone computer-based content to cover a range of management,
delivery, and collaboration technologies. During the 1990s, networking
advances, together with the rise of the Web and its supporting
technologies, and the emergence of learning-management systems (see Fig.
3). Synchronous collaboration tools, which allow to share a “virtual
classroom” over Internet-protocol networks. Online-learning authoring
tools, collaboration tools, and systems for assessing and testing
learner skills are helping in value addition. Most recently learning
objects platforms are the new wave of innovation, offering the benefits
of granularized learning that users can repurpose for different
audiences and personalize for individual learners (Barron, 2002).
Fig. 3. Technology evolution in e-Learning (Source: SRI
Consulting Business Intelligence)
Research into effective e-Learning indicates online communities must
be build knowledge together as they work on interesting and realistic
projects and problems. Unfortunately nowadays many e-Learning companies
"deliver course materials" rather than create knowledge-building
communities, and stress memorization of facts, rather than having the
learners actually use their new knowledge and skills as part of
collaborative projects with other online learners. Most of the
e-Learning products and services overlooked one fundamental factor: how
people learn. The past decade has seen an explosion of research into how
the people’s mind works and how they learn (Markkula, 2006). The
experience has shown that learning requires:
- An active role for learners, contributing content and knowledge,
making connections, and building relationships for informal learning
enabled by technology.
- Shift from read to write: more and more learners are
contributing content and knowledge.
- Combination of pull and push: content, knowledge and connections
are increasingly relevant and personal, driven by a company’s and an
individual’s personal and/or professional needs.
- Open, unstructured content in various formats and different
media (increasingly in audio and video format) and found through
- Involvement with realistic tasks; Interactions with peers or
facilitators; Opportunities for feedback and self-evaluation.
Human interaction is a critical component for learning. Face-to-face
contact is still not comparable with virtual meeting. There are
situations in which classroom training cannot be replaced. Certain
content because of its nature, importance is not suitable for pure
e-Learning. Blended learning is an integrated approach that applies a
mix of e-Learning and traditional education or training delivery options
to teach, support, and sustain the skills needed for learner’s
competencies. With blended learning, the tried-and-true traditional
learning methods are combined with new technology to create a
synergetic, dynamic learning structure that can boost learning to better
The educational institutions are under intense pressure to get the
best course to their learners, in the right format, at the right time,
for the right price and, very importantly, in the required quality. To
do this, they have to spend considerable time and resources on planning
their supply strategy to respond to the demand of the industry or
society. This goal can only be reached if the organisations introduce a
usable and innovative tool, which serves the above mentioned
requirements. This tool must enable networked educational partners to
work together across different and possibly flexible platforms. Moreover
it must support the sharing of management and technological information
Learning platforms are software-controlled learning infrastructures
that attempt to replicate what teachers do in the face-to-face
classroom. These platforms are normally located on a computer on the
Internet (or an Intranet) and are typically accessed by means of a Web
browser. Within the last decade numerous e-Learning platforms (e.g.
Blackboard, Hyperwave, Ilias, Metacoon, Moodle) were developed with
different concepts and supporting different operating systems. Most of
them offer a wide range of functionality for the publication of
documents, for promoting the interaction between lecturers and students,
and for administration purposes. The systems have features, like
electronic assignment submissions, virtual areas for group work,
self-assessment quizzes and online testing, tracking specific student
activity, poll, glossary, survey, discussion forums, and links to
external web-sites (Mansberger et al, 2006).
Developers still focus on one of the segments of the Learning
environment. The platforms allow academic staff and learners to go
through the processes that what we'd expect to encounter at the
traditional campus (e.g: student enrolment, induction and support,
ticking the class attendance roll, chalk and talk combined with class
discussion, practice of skills, assessment etc.). A rigid replication of
the traditional campus delivery model is an intermediate solution.
Learners need to be equipped with more contemporary skills such as
logic, initiative, self-directedness and online research skills. This
requires a complete re-think as to how online platforms are designed.
Interoperatibility should also be handled as on the most important
issues in system design.
In order to provide a generic framework for e-Learning a concept of a
three-tiered system of content authors, educational gateways (”brokers”)
and points-of-learning was developed in the NODE (Networked Organisation
of Distance Education) MINERVA project (Brunner-Maresch, 2002). Our
model is an integrated and flexible system, which allows for the
changing faces of the nodes. Depending on the need, a node can be a
gateway from one point of view and point of learning from an other. The
conceptual design of an educational gateway and its subsystems
(marketing, management, knowledge resource building, course production,
administration, portal) were developed at the Faculty of Geoinformatics,
University of West Hungary. The functions of the gateway are illustrated
in Fig. 4. and listed below:
- Marketing functions are as follows: supporting needs analysis,
research of the dynamic educational market, promotion of e-Learning,
enquiries from prospective learners, PR, demand maintenance.
- The management subsystem should help conceptualisation (serving
information for the mission, strategy and objectives). It also deals
with HRM (motivational aspects for the author, workload issues
(when, and how intensively can the author work), guarantee for
continuity (no hire and fire); knowledge management; building
relationship, networking and quality management (definition of
quality levels, selection of appropriate contents, handling of
accreditation issues, communications assuring quality). Finally, the
information infrastructure (gateway hardware, software,
consideration of organisational setting of content developers,
authors, knowledge-base backup etc.) must be managed.
- Building knowledge resources (content development) supports
original developments, knowledge mining (searching from
metadata-bases, searching from public data), uploading learning
units and their metadata, copyright), maintenance and archive of the
- Course production starts with learning path definition. This
subsystem ensures accreditation, recognition and certification,
dealing with terms and conditions, course calendar, course
maintenance, and it has an FAQ section.
- Administration arranges academic administration (enrolment,
accounting, certificates, placements and alumni), course
administration (content data, course backup, student’s, tutor’s,
author’s data) and financial administration (contracts, ensuring IPR
- “Portal” is a term for a World Wide Web site that is, or
proposes to be, a major starting site for users when they get
connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site.
“Portal” is often used as a synonym of gateway. In our
interpretation, the portal is a subsystem of the educational gateway
with the following data and services: introduction, contacts,
overview, press, news, events, course offering (next course,
learning advises, opportunities, achievements), “my workplace”
settings, using the workplace (selecting the right PC, selecting an
Internet Service Provider (ISP), solving technical problems,
learning how to learn online, access to modules, assignment upload:
auto path, name, marking, feedback, progress info, grades). Other
typical support services of the portal are: help desk, FAQ,
tutoring, mentoring, download (free software, public data, and
publications), virtual library (papers, presentations, and links),
communication with tutors, instructors, collaboration with other
students. The portal also serves for examinations, evaluating
courses, building a virtual club, collaborative learning and for job
Fig. 4. Gateway functions
The growth of the Internet, followed by the use of intranets,
groupware and learning environments, has highlighted the problem of
standardisation. People want to find content easily wherever it might be
on the Internet, and incorporate it into their courses; learners want to
move between institutions taking their learning records with them; and
educationalists using e-Learning systems want to have good information
support from administrative systems. In fact, achieving these is key to
the realisation of a global education marketplace (Cetis, 2004).
Currently, a fundamental issue is the emergence of two technological
developments: standards and open source software. These two together
will facilitate creativity; and foster the accumulation of innovation
and activity within an administration and learning environment.
The trends in e-Learning can be characterised by the following
- shift from traditional education or training to flexible,
individual, self-organized learning,
- move to process-oriented learning instead of product oriented
- collaborative learning based on a community of learners,
experts, facilitators, etc.
In education the adoption of different forms of e-Learning has led to
radical shift in the power politics of education not only in terms of
providers but also particularly at the level of the teacher-student
relation. The old hierarchical structure is breaking down as globally we
see shifts along a spectrum from didactic education to communities of
learning (Petch, 2006).
From focusing on the local learning environment and its available
educational tools, the universities are now facing a new situation,
where the students just under their fingertips have access to the global
pool of knowledge. Consequently, not only the role of the teacher is
changing, but also the whole university organization and the principles
of learning in relation to both methodology and pedagogy. The role of
the universities will have to be reengineered based on this new paradigm
of knowledge sharing (Enemark, 2006).
The ability of students to connect with experts around the world, as
well as their group members, also opens new opportunities for learning
and professional development. Students and tutors find these
opportunities motivating. Distributed instruction, the explosive
expansion of networks is a general trend. Whatever the revolutionary
changes in technology, the learning is the vital element. The teaching
is not enough, it is the active (or proactive) learning, which is
essential (Markus, 2005).
Educators will be confronted with their changing role in e-Learning
environments. While technology-based learning will unlikely able to
completely replace the university education, it offers more
opportunities for corporate training and continuing studies. However,
the role of educators will change: they will become more and more
facilitators, providing dynamic update of knowledge databases,
transparent and clear syllabi, reading recommendations, etc., and
offering guidance and motivation strategies for students who should get
used to self-organized study approaches (Seufert, 2001).
Because of the cost of using e-Learning tools decreasing, more
universities, governments, companies have added online courses and other
forms of distance learning to their organizations (WorldWideLearn,
2008). Based on literature review we can identify the following
fundamental trends that will influence the growth of e-Learning over the
- Changing skills require new initiatives. Daily tasks evolving
faster than universities can produce qualified experts, many
employers apply constant, on-the-job training to remain competitive.
E-learning programs help staff members to obtain new skills and
critical improvements quickly and efficiently.
- Market offers quick start options. Institutions can lease or
purchase turnkey e-Learning systems on low budgets, or can implement
free open source e-Learning. As e-Learning processes become more
standardized, clients benefit from shared research and development
- Companies integrate e-Learning into mainstream. More and more
organizations exploit intranets to increase communication and
productivity. They can easily integrate learning modules into staff
communications, and can add similar tools to web-based systems. At
the same time the modular nature of e-Learning content allows
employees to learn at their desks gradually, in their own pace.
- e-Learning classrooms open the world. We are only starting to
see the effects that quality education is having on business and
industry in developing countries. Likewise, small businesses can
access the same level of information and insight that was earlier
only available to large companies.
- Mobile technology helps e-Learning initiatives. Wireless
technology allows educators to reach learners in their working
environment. With radio, satellite, and Wi-Fi signals beaming
two-way information from distant people can participate in an almost
endless array of learning opportunities.
- Governments support e-Learning. Governments around the world
have discovered that e-Learning programs can dramatically improve
the quality of life for citizens while reducing the financial burden
on taxpayers. Governments in developing countries have invested
heavily in e-Learning programs.
5. BUSINESS MODELS
As "e-Commerce" has challenged in the last decade basic principles
about the nature of business, the impact of "e-Learning" may raise
questions to established assumptions about the provision of teaching and
training. The e-Commerce literature is not consistent in the usage of
the term "business model". We recommend the following definition by
- an architecture for the product, service and information flows,
including a description of the various business actors and their
- a description of the potential benefits for the various business
- a description of the sources of revenues.
The five C’s of successful e-Learning implementation are culture,
content, capability, cost, and clients (Anderson, 2002). These are the
main success factors:
- Culture: In the e-Learning model students or employees can
assess skill gaps and access knowledge as they need it. Learning can
occur at their home, office, or any other Internet- or
intranet-accessible location. But transitioning from face-to-face
training to e-Learning is a major cultural shift that will not carry
on without the full support of senior leadership.
- Determining whether content is suitable for e-Learning requires
close inspection of the learning objectives. No amount of streaming
video, audio files, or colourful pictures will compensate for poorly
designed programs that fail to promote fundamental educational
- Capability involves the wide spectrum of computer hardware,
infrastructure, IT support, and instructional design. Internal
capability should support multimedia technology to fully optimise
e-Learning programs. Other capabilities that need development are
instructional design support and follow-up strategies.
- Cost: A key step in determining the cost of an e-Learning
initiative is to find out if tracking and reporting capabilities are
already available or need to be developed or purchased. The creation
of quality e-Learning material creates a cost dilemma, since it has
both high variable and high fixed costs. The reduction of the fixed
costs can be achieved by reuse, rapid production, ease of updating
and cost-effective pedagogy (Weller, 2004).
- Clients: Successful e-Learning initiatives require strong
marketing that begins long before the actual implementation date.
All potential learners need to be aware of the rationale for and
benefits of e-Learning opportunities, and they need to be encouraged
to seek out and complete programs that address their key development
Recently, the traditional players, such as universities, see
themselves confronted with international competitors not only from their
field, but also from the hard- and software industries, which establish
corporate and virtual universities. The line between academic and
corporate training is blurring: many universities investing on
continuing education as well and cooperate additionally with e-Learning
vendors (Seufert, 2001).
An appropriate business model is a critical issue in any course
delivery. New business models assure to radically change the educational
services and greatly improve the effectiveness of knowledge delivery.
e-Commerce also changes how we teach and learn, it is more about
redesign the strategy than technology.
The funded projects very often lack a long-term business model
reflecting mutual interest of the project partners. As a good, exemplary
business model, developed by University of Münster and its partners,
within an EC-ALFA-project emphasises the following key features (Brox,
Painho et al. 2004):
- The consortium agrees on an exchange of e-Learning courses on a
- Each partner provides a single e-Learning course, in return
getting access to free courses from the partnership.
- Partners choose a course topic in which they have special
expertise, which reduces development time and increases quality.
- Each course is based on an existing course and available
- Partners deliver a complete course including tutoring.
- The consortium uses an existing e-Learning platform of one of
The business model above was successfully applied and provided
feasible e-Learning courses with low costs and resources. The same basic
approach will be examined in another, recently started e-Learning
project (Brox et al, 2006). The business model of re-using and sharing
resources could support to build sustainable courses within other
To disseminate the knowledge, it is essential to have up-to-date
learning materials. Thanks to the development in information technology,
there have been many possibilities and tools replace and renew the
traditional teaching methods. Thus the e-Learning methods are expected
to play an increasing role in professional education. Today, the
universities or companies - based on their own limited resources - are
not able to respond the exponentially growing demands. There is a strong
demand for international cooperation in educational developments,
however, contrary to the field of Geoinformation Technologies in our
profession there are only few examples of these international
co-operations, there is a lack of collaborations in networked education.
The results of the investigations imply that educational systems will
be transformed by the following features:
- The IT revolution holds great promise and presents great
challenges. It will be difficult to control but impossible to
resist. We must transform all traditional institutions of learning
to prepare students for their future. In addition to the basic
skills of a profession, every learner should be a master in
communication, collaboration, and creative problem solving.
- Systems will be more “learner centred” in the sense that they
will offer learners and teachers / trainers global access to online
resources and assessment strategies, enable learners to interact
with learning objects, teachers, tutors, mentors, administrative and
service resources, and enable learners to tailor the learning
experience to their needs.
- Original educational objects, expertise and knowledge can be
incorporated to add value to learning resources acquired elsewhere.
Course planners and teachers can acquire learning objects from large
content databases, and aggregate and manage these according to the
needs of particular groups of learners by selecting the appropriate
mode of delivery.
- Learners will be able to fulfil their educational needs by
choosing from a world-wide list of educational / training
- Collaborative learning will enable learners to establish their
own learning groups focused on their common interests.
- New business models promise to radically change the educational
services and greatly improve the effectiveness of knowledge
delivery. The most important ones are customisation and community
building. The web links students, professionals, alumni etc. and
allows for new ways of communication and interaction. e-Business
also changes how we teach and learn; it is more about redesigning
the strategy than the technology.
International programmes often sponsor Spatial Data Infrastructure
developments, but the communication about the essential role of
surveyors within SDI is not satisfactory. Coordinated marketing of the
surveying profession is needed at an international level targeting both
our clients and to the public. As a consequence our education and
training activities should target not only the surveying professionals,
but also our potential users. They should cover a wide range from
awareness building to advanced skills for scientific researches. These
are the main reasons why we need joint activities to solve the above
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Training Requirements in Geodesy and Surveying, FIG Congress, Munich,
WorldWideLearn, 2008: New Dimensions in Education,
Bela Markus is a land surveyor, M.Sc., Ph.D., professor of
Geoinformatics, and dean of the Faculty of Geoinformatics, University of
West Hungary. He has 37 years teaching experience in surveying, 20 years
in teaching GIS and 15 years in development and organization of open,
distance learning professional courses for land administration.
Prof. Markus has over hundred publications on various aspects of
using computers in surveying, spatial information sciences and
educational developments. He is actively involved in many national and
international academic programmes, chairman of the National Committee of
Association of Hungarian Surveyors and Cartographers, chairman of the
Hungarian UNIGIS Course Board.
Prof. Markus is chairing the International Federation of Surveyors
(FIG) Commission 2 – Professional Education and member the Board of
Directors of FIG Foundation. He is also member the Executive Committee
of EUROPACE (Leuven, Belgium).
Prof. Dr. Bela Markus
University of West Hungary
Faculty of Geoinformatics
Pirosalma u. 1-3.
Tel. +36 (22) 516 552
Fax +36 (22) 516 521
Web site: www.geo.info.hu